Leucanthemum vulgare

Leucanthemum vulgare

The ox-eye daisy or oxeye daisy or dog daisy or marguerite (Leucanthemum vulgare (Vaill.) Lam.) is a herbaceous species belonging to the Asteraceae family.

Systematics –
From a systematic point of view it belongs to:
Eukaryota Domain,
Kingdom Plantae,
Spermatophyta superdivision,
Magnoliophyta Division,
Magnoliopsida class,
Subclass Asteridae,
Asterales Order,
Asteraceae family,
Subfamily Asteroideae,
Anthemideae Tribe,
Subtribe Leucantheminae,
Genus Leucanthemum,
L. vulgare species.
Basionimo is the term:
– Bellidioides vulgaris Vaill ..
The following terms are synonymous:
– Bellis major Garsault;
– Chamaemelum leucanthemum (L.) E. H. L. Krause;
– Chrysanthemum alpicola;
– Chrysanthemum dentatum Gilib .;
– Chrysanthemum ircutianum Turcz .;
– Chrysanthemum lacustre Brot .;
– Chrysanthemum lanceolatum Pers .;
– Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. (1753);
– Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. subsp. heterophyllum (Willd.);
– Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. subsp. lanceolatum (Pers.) E. Mayer;
– Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. subsp. lanceolatum (DC.) E. Mayer;
– Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. subsp. leucolepis;
– Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. subsp. montanum (All.) Gaudin;
– Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. subsp .. triviale Gaudin;
– Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. var. boecheri B. Boivin;
– Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. var. pinnatifidum Lecoq & Lamotte;
– Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. var. subpinnatifidum Fernald;
– Chrysanthemum montanum Willd .;
– Chrysanthemum montanum Willd. var. heterophyllum (Willd.) Koch;
– Chrysanthemum pratense Salisb .;
– Chrysanthemum praecox (M. bieb.) DC .;
– Chrysanthemum sylvestre Willd .;
– Chrysanthemum vulgare (Lam.) Gaterau;
– Leucanthemum adustum (W. D. J. Koch) Gremli;
– Leucanthemum aligulatum Vogt;
– Leucanthemum atratum var. heterophyllum (Willd.) Rouy;
– Leucanthemum catalaunicum Vogt;
– Leucanthemum coronopifolium sensu Willk., Not (Vill.) Gren. & Godr .;
– Leucanthemum cuneifolium H. J. Coste;
– Leucanthemum delarreste;
– Leucanthemum gaudinii;
– Leucanthemum glaucophyllum (Briq. & Cavill.) Jahand .;
– Leucanthemum heterophyllum (Willd.) DC .;
– Leucanthemum laciniatum Huter & al .;
– Leucanthemum lacustre (Brot.) Samp .;
– Leucanthemum lanceolatum DC .;
– Leucanthemum leucanthemum (L.) Rydb .;
– Leucanthemum maestracense Vogt & F. H. Hellw .;
– Leucanthemum maximum (Ramond) DC .;
– Southern Leucanthemum Legrand;
– Leucanthemum montserratianum Vogt;
– Leucanthemum pachyphyllum Marchi & Illum; inati;
– Leucanthemum pallens (Perreym.) DC.
– Leucanthemum pluriflorum Pau;
– Leucanthemum praecox (Horvatić) Villard;
– Leucanthemum praecox Horvatic var. praecox;
– Leucanthemum raciborskii Popov & Krasch .;
– Leucanthemum subalpinum (Simonk.) Tzvelev;
– Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. subsp. alpicola (Gremli) A.Löve & D. Löve;
– Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. subsp. heterophyllum (Willd.) Soó;
– Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. subsp. incisum (Bertol.) Arcang .;
– Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. subsp. praecox Horvatić;
– Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. subsp. montanum (All.) Briq. & Cavill .;
– Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. var. pinnatifidum (Lecoq & Lamotte) Moldenke;
– Matricaria leucanthemum (L.) Scop .;
– Pontia heterophylla (Willd.) Bubani;
– Pontia vulgaris Bubani;
– Pyrethrum leucanthemum (L.) Franch .;
– Tanacetum leucanthemum (L.) Sch.Bip ..

Etymology –
The term Leucanthemum comes from the Greek λευκός leucós white and from ἄνϑοϛ ánthos fiore: for the white ligulate flowers of the crown.
The specific vulgar epithet comes from vúlgus vulgo: very common, ordinary due to its widespread use, banal.

Geographic Distribution and Habitat –
The common daisy is a species with a Eurasian distribution that has become sub cosmopolitan and is present in all regions of Italy (in Sicily as an adventitia).
In Europe it is present as far as the northern regions with ranges extending into the Caucasus and Siberia (Asia), with the exception of the Svalbard islands. Elsewhere (North America, South America and Australia) it is naturalized.
Its habitat is that of meadows, roadsides, sparse woods and ditches; but it is also found in fields and crops, in ruderal environments and orchards (it is sometimes considered invasive species). The preferred substrate is both calcareous and siliceous with neutral pH, on loamy-clayey soils but rich in skeleton, humiferous, somewhat fresh, medium nutritional values ​​of the soil which must be moderately humid.
The altitudinal distribution is up to 1500 m above sea level.

Description –
Leucanthemum vulgare is a perennial herbaceous plant that grows from a short rhizome, up to 0.60 meters in height, from which, during the autumn, one or more rosettes of leaves develop which in the following spring produce stems, simple or branched, up to one meter high.
The leaves vary from obovato-cuneate to spatulate to variously lanceolate, all however are formed by a portion of various shape that narrows very gradually into a thick winged petiole; the margin is toothed or variously incised; the lower leaves have a long petiole which is reduced in the upper ones and is missing in the last ones which are sessile and sometimes amplessicauli.
The flowers are gathered in flower heads a few centimeters in diameter (8-10 cm in the cultivated forms); these are enclosed by several series of bracts with a large semitransparent margin; the peripheral flowers have a long white ligule terminated at the apex by two or three teeth, the internal flowers have a tubular corolla divided into five small lobes at the apex.
The fruit is a cylindrical achene (cypsela) of about 2-3 mm, with 10 ribs, usually crowned or auricular at the apex and with absent pappus.

Cultivation –
Leucanthemum vulgare is a perennial plant that is harvested in nature for local use as food and medicine.
It is a plant that can be easily grown in various types of soil as long as it is in a sunny position, even if it prefers a rich soil.
Plants are hardy to at least -20 ° C.
The whole plant is permeated with acrid juice, which makes it hateful to insects, and the flowers smell of stale sweat.
Propagation is by seed with sowing to be carried out in spring in seedbeds and subsequent transplanting as soon as the seedlings are manageable. Alternatively, you can broadcast sowing directly in the open field.
You can operate the division of the tufts in spring or autumn. The larger tufts can be replanted directly into their permanent locations, although it is best to pot the smaller tufts and grow them in a cold pallet until they take root well. Basal cuttings can also be prepared in spring.
Avoid standing water in cultivation.

Customs and Traditions –
The common daisy is a plant that is used in food, medicine and gardening.
In the plant there are various essences, tannin, rubber and resin.
According to folk medicine, these plants have the following healing properties:
– antispasmodic (relieves muscle spasms, and also relaxes the nervous system);
– bechiche (calming action of cough);
– diaphoretic (facilitates skin transpiration);
– diuretic (facilitates the release of urine);
– emmenagogues (regulates menstrual flow);
– tonics (strengthens the body in general);
– vulnerarie (heals wounds).
It is used in the kitchen where spring sprouts are used which can be added to salads, but must be used sparingly.
In the field of gardening it is an easy plant to grow and of sure effect that is used for borders or lawns.

Preparation Method –
The flowers of the common daisy are mainly used and the leaves, both raw and cooked, are used for edible purposes.
Young spring shoots are finely chopped and added to salads.
They have a rather pungent flavor and should be used sparingly or mixed with other salad plants.
The whole plant, and especially the flowers, is harvested in the period of May and June, then dried for later use.
The plant has been used successfully in the treatment of whooping cough, asthma and nervous excitability and externally is used as a lotion on bruises, wounds, ulcers and some skin diseases.
A decoction of dried flowers and stems was used to wash chapped hands and distilled water is obtained from the flowers which is an effective eye lotion in the treatment of conjunctivitis.

Guido Bissanti

Sources
– Acta Plantarum – Flora of the Italian Regions.
– Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
– Useful Tropical Plants Database.
– Conti F., Abbate G., Alessandrini A., Blasi C. (ed.), 2005. An annotated checklist of the Italian vascular flora, Palombi Editore.
– Pignatti S., 1982. Flora of Italy, Edagricole, Bologna.
– Treben M., 2000. Health from the Lord’s Pharmacy, Advice and experiences with medicinal herbs, Ennsthaler Editore.

Warning: Pharmaceutical applications and alimurgical uses are indicated for informational purposes only, they do not represent in any way a medical prescription; therefore no responsibility is taken for their use for curative, aesthetic or food purposes.




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