Cipsela

Cipsela

The term cipsela, in botany, means the indehiscent dry fruit typical of the Asteraceae family and however present in others such as in the Valerianaceae.
The cipsela originates from a monosperm monosperm ovary unifloro, which wraps the achene proper, often welding to it.
The cipsela is often fitted at the apex with a baby food or a crown of hair or bristles, resulting from the transformation of a rudimentary chalice.

This structure allows the dispersion of the seeds thanks to the action of the wind (anemocora dissemination).
It should also be noted that a layer of phytomelanin is present in the cipsela of some Asteraceae species; this is an acellular organic substance, which adapts to the morphology of the intercellular spaces between the hypodermis and the sclerenchyme of the fruit; this particular condition gives the reproduction structure exceptional resistance to some external agents such as: bacterial decompositions, attacks by insects, in particular from the larvae of the moths of sunflowers (Homoesoma spp.).

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