With the term phanerophytes, according to the Raunkiær system (which is the classification system for plants, invented by the Danish botanist Christen Raunkiær, based on the way in which plant organisms overcome the adverse season) we mean terrestrial plants whose buds and whose vegetative apexes, destined to survive the adverse season, rise above the ground (at least to a height greater than 30 cm) on persistent stems for several years.
Phanerophytes are trees and shrubs that grow mainly in hot-humid environments, where buds require little protection and today represent 47% of the world’s flora.
Phanerophytes are divided into the following forms:
P caesp = Bushy fanerophytes. Woody plants with bushy habit.
P ep = Epiphyte phanerophytes. Plants that grow on others, but without being parasitic.
P lian = Fanerophyte lianose. Woody plants unable to stand on their own and therefore with a climbing habit.
P rept = creeping phanerophytes. Woody plants with adherent posture to the substrate.
P scap = arboreal fanerophytes. Woody plants with arboreal habit.
P succ = Succulent Phanerophytes. Woody plants with organs adapted to function as water reserves.
NP = Nano-Fanerophyte. Woody plants with shrubbery, up to 2 m high.