How to grow the avocado in a biological way
To begin the cultivation of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) Know that it is a plant that needs lots of light and lots of space. In the home or in confined areas, the plant will soon suffer. In addition, the avocado can get to fructify only in temperate climates, where there are no frosts and therefore in Italy only in some areas of the southern coast and islands. As for the soil, although the avocado is suitable for different types, it prefers those well drained of medium mixture, tending to melted, better if volcanic even with good presence of skeleton, with neutral or slightly acid reaction with a pH of 6 to 7.5 and in any case not higher than 8. To avoid calcareous, clayey and brackish soils.
For planting you can also start from seed but if you have to plant a certain number of trees is an operation that we discourage because of genetic variability. The best plantations for productive purposes are obtained with selected and certified rootstocks with certain characteristics.
However, if the cultivation is aimed at a few plants and for amateur use, reproduction by seed can also be a fun and educational thing. Let’s see how to proceed: Open an avocado by splitting it into two identical halves and extract the large seed. This will have to be half-filled in water. Out of the water must go the part that will develop the cotyledon or fake leaf, that is the base of the “hair”. Immersed in water must be the lower half, that is, from which the root will develop. For this operation, just use 4 skewer sticks from a position along the circumference of the seed to form a 45-degree angle. It takes about 8 weeks for root development. When the plant has reached a length of 15-20 cm, it must be “cut off” 5-7 centimeters so as to make it grow stronger and stronger. Subsequently when the plant has reached again the length of 20-25 cm, it can be transplanted or in a pot full of well drained soil rich in humus; make sure that the top of the seed is still exposed to the air.
In the early years remember to keep the plant in a sunny area, away from sudden changes in temperature and wind and never at a temperature below 4 ° C. The permanent planting, in the ground, should be done only when the stem of the plant will be strong enough to resist the wind. The pruning of the plant must be done above all to give form and scaffolding; later as an adult the plant should be subjected only to pruning of old or weak branches. Consider that an avocado plant can reach 10 meters and in suitable climates even 15-20 meters.
For production plants, choose the sixth 7 x 7, a form of roundish pot breeding. For a greater production we recommend at least two varieties to increase the pollination and give many fruits. The irrigation needs of the avocado are similar to those of the citrus fruits, while for the fertilization provide replanting to provide the hole that will host the plant with a good quantity of mature manure (not pollen) and then, during its life, restore the content in the period winter before working the land to mix it. The fruit harvest starts from the month of October until the first days of November. With regards to pests, the greatest danger is represented by fruit flies; in this case specific traps can be used with the “Attract and Kill” method. Traps that attract and to which the insects remain attached through particular glues.