The plant lantern (Plantago lanceolata L., 1753) is a perennial herbaceous plant belonging to the Plantaginaceae family, whose genus Plantago has about 200 species spread all over the world.
The plant lantern belongs to the Eukaryota Domain, the Kingdom Plantae, the Tracheobionta Subordination, the Spermatophyta Superdivision, the Magnoliophyta Division, the Magnoliopsida Class, the Asteridae Subclass, the Lamiales Order, the Plantaginaceae Family, and then the Plantago Genus and the P. lanceolata Species.
The name of the genus comes from the Latin word “planta” and means “plant of the foot” with reference to the basal leaves that are flat and similar to “plants of one foot”. The name of the species comes from the Latin “lanceolatum” and refers to the shape of the leaves similar to the tip of the spears. The scientific name of the species was defined by Linneo (1707 – 1778). The vulgar names used for this plant are: Plant lantern, Lanceolata plant, Small plantar, Female plantar, Dog language, Cinquenervi, Arnoglossa.
Geographic Distribution and Habitat –
The plant lantern is of Eurasian origin and has become cosmopolitan. In Italy it is a common species and is present everywhere in the plain and in the reliefs. It is present on both sides of the Alps. The other European reliefs linked to the Alps are found in the Black Forest, Vosges, Jura Massif, Central Massif, Pyrenees, Dinaric Alps, the Balkan Mountains and the Carpathians. It is also present everywhere in the rest of Europe and in the Mediterranean area is everywhere present: from Transcaucasia, Anatolia, Mediterranean Asia and North Africa.
The habitat typical of the plant lantern is the unripe, the areas along the streets, fields, vineyards, ruderal environments and other syntagonal areas. It prefers the limestone substrates but also the siliceous substrate with a neutral pH. It grows on soils with average nutritional values and preferably dry or otherwise damp. The maximum altitude where it develops: this plant is up to 2000 m s.l.m .; This plant is therefore frequented by vegetation planes: hilly, mountainous, subalpine and partly alpine (in addition to planificial – sea level). It is, however, a rustic, ubiquitous, generally synantropic, species that suits almost all climates and soils.
The lanceolate plantago varies in size from 20 to 50 cm. And beyond. It is a perennial herbaceous herbaceous plant, with winter-like garnets at ground level and protected by litter or snow and have leaves arranged to form a basal rosette. They are proterogenic plants (ovules mature before pollen to avoid self-fertilization because they are mainly anemogamic plants). The pubescence is made up of simple hairs.
It has somewhat subtle, almost capillary and twisted roots, and a woody and bloated rhizome.
The aerial part of the plant consists of one or more flowering axes long and free from leaves. These are striated-soled and with 5 grooves.
The leaves of the plant have a structure in the shape of a basal rosette with spiral arrangement that persists for the whole year. The lower part is narrowed to a slightly wedged small petiole, while the upper part is enlarged with linear-lanceolate elliptic-lanceolate shapes. The edges are whole or slightly toothed with spaced teeth. The size of the leaves varies between 1 and 3 cm in length, between 8 and 25 cm, with a petiole length of 2 to 10 cm.
The plant is endowed with inflorescences in the form of pedunculated ears composed of flowers gathered in large numbers; The flowers are sessile, small and small in every element. The ears of this plant have a compact and short ovoid shape.
The most obvious aspect of inflorescence is actually the long, vibrant stamens that form a chin that progressively moves to the apex of inflorescence with the progress of flowering. This peculiarity, like all that happens in nature, is not random: the stamens are long and vibrant because the pollination is anemogamous, that is through the wind.
The flowers grow at the height of the brown membranous bratheas. The chalice consists of 2 free sepals and 2 welded, which are straight with a green central rib. The corolla is tubular and in the form of a funnel divided into lanceolated brunettes lobes. The 4 stamens have long filaments and anthers, first yellow, then orange, which cross the whitish corolla.
The fruits are capsules with transverse dehiscence, called pissids, ovals, tiny and brown, containing 1 to 2 semi-glossy seeds with the concave internal face.
The flowering of this plant takes place between March and May until August-October.
Pollination is mainly driven by wind (anemophile).
For cultivation read the following card.
Uses and Traditions –
Lanceolate Plantago is an edible species.
It can be used as infusion or decoction, also associated with other balsamic plants and expectorants such as Altea, Malva, Lichens of Iceland, Eucalyptus, Thymus, Grindelia, Elicriso or in a liquid extract or syrup to calm the cough and Dissolve the catarrh, and as a soothing and anti-inflammatory agent in the event of pertussis and bronchial asthma. Mucilages contribute to the soothing action stratifying on the walls of the bronchial mucous membranes, thus protecting them from further aggression.
For outdoor use, Plantago is a healing, soothing, anti-wrinkle, anti-redness, which is indicated for dermatitis, small skin lesions, rosacea acne, ocular and even allergic inflammation.
While Plantago lanceolate pollen (but not plant) can be a frequent cause of allergic rhinitis, fresh leaves have antiallergic properties due to the antihistaminic action of acubin; They are useful in case of insect bites, applied locally by bandage, chopped after careful washing in boiled water, or vigorously fringed on the sting, to soothe inflammation, swelling, itching and burning. Because of its high content in mucilages, Plantago lanceolata can also be used in the cosmetic field as an ingredient of moisturizing creams specific to dry and dehydrated skins. Plants are considered a safe plant with no contraindications, suitable for children too.
The leaves of the plant lantern are available practically throughout the year and are used as radicchio, raw in salad, or cooked like spinach. By boiling they release a smell similar to that of champignon mushrooms. The leaves have astringent properties. It was used antically against inflammation such as hemorrhoids and respiratory illnesses, or was given to young anemics. The blossom of the inflorescence is much more rich in mucillation and has laxative properties. Like all plantagoes, there is a strong healing effect on the herbalist, and fresh herbs that contain mucillatanine, minced chopped, contacting a wound with a wound, help to quickly heal the wound and block the bleeding. It is recommended to use conjunctivitis and eyelid inflammation.
The main constituents of this plant are mucilages, tannins, aucubin glycoside, vitamin C, silicic acid. It is essentially an antibacterial, expectorant, hemostatic, astringent, ophthalmic, soothing, laxative, emollient plant.
The seeds contain up to 30% of mucillin that swells in the intestine, acts as laxative by decongesting irritated mucous membranes; A glucoside, anacubin, which stimulates the secretion of uric acid; Bactericides, flavonoids, tannins, vitamins A C K, pectin.
Also about 6-7% of mucilages, tannins, phenolic carboxylic acids such as chlorogenic acid are present. Lutein, apigenin, salicylic acid, saponins with probable hemolytic action and mineral salts complete the components with higher concentrations.
Of this plant are infused, juices, decoctions. If ingested in large quantities it can cause constipation. Indicated in respiratory diseases, in the treatment of oral and throat cavities, gastric disorders, insect bites, conjunctivitis, ulcers, wounds and burns.
This plant is used and cultivated by the pharmaceutical industry to prepare cough syrups.
In the outdoors we remember the infusion, but also the freshly ground dotted leaves, can be used to prepare tablets for sores that heal with difficulty.
The juice can be used in the preparation of effective candies in case of cough, fresh is useful if applied on bites of bees.
The aqueous extracts have skin moisturizing properties, they are used in masks and cream to rehydrate dry and partially dehydrated skins.
The seeds of the plant are highly sought after by the birds, who has them in the cage, can give them the ears to eat.
Young leaves can be used in small quantities in salad, soup preparation, or cooked as spinach.
Starch, fibers, dyes and tannins can be obtained from the plant.
As a forage, it is not profitable, as all the plants are dried, dusted, and dusted.
The Medicinal Properties of the Plants were well known in antiquity: many Greek and Latin scholars have reported us about its medicinal use, such as Dioscoride, who advised her for dysentery, while Pliny called her “magic grass” for its many properties healing.
The Plantain, which in the past was also known as “Grass of Mars”, was part of the group of so-called “magical” plants (together with Giusquiamo, Belladonna, Mandragora, etc.) and considered in close association with astrology. In the “Flight of the Seven Ibis”, for example, we find the Plants between the magical plants dominated by the flight of Mars and therefore linked to the signs of Aries and Scorpio.
The plant, used in the past by people from these zodiacal signs suffering from diseases and disorders in the genitalia, and the very close connection that was attributed to the planet Mars, was thought to be effective in treating wounds and improving the circulation.
The suggestive English name of Plantago, “white man’s foot” = white man’s foot, refers to the seeds of the plant, which were spread everywhere in colonial times, carried by Europeans in the pants of the trousers.
Lanceolata has been present since the forests began to be slaughtered by the peasants of the Stone Age about 5,000 years ago. From analyzes made on pollen found in peat bogs and lake sediments, it has been found that the plant has flourished abundantly since then.
It was a belief that the plant growing on the eyelashes of the streets looked at the men as they walked. For this reason, attributes were attributed to the ability to cure any stem from walking: from distortions to simple foot-loss.
In the Middle Ages, when witchcraft was widespread, love filters or amorous spells were neutralized by using potions containing plantain.
Indigenous Americans, who did not know it because they were unknown on that continent, understood that they were close to the “white man” when they recognized the presence of this plant, which was imported from them.
In 1600, it was inserted into the recipes devoted to the skin care of the bridesmaids of the time.
An understanding of Anglo-Saxon prayer found in a manuscript probably dating back to the eleventh century d to understand his interest in ancient times. C., who invokes nine plants and also refers to Plantaggine with the following verses:
“And you, Plantain,
Mother of plants,
Open to the east,
Above you cried the wagons,
The ladies rode over you,
Above you rode brides,
Above you snorted the daggers.
To all resist,
Everyone is opposed to you.
Opposed to poison,
To the contagion and to the evil that infects the country. ”
Plants were used primarily against all respiratory organ diseases, especially against severe catarrh, cough, canine cough, bronchial asthma and even pulmonary tuberculosis.
The Swiss parish priest Kunzle, a naturist physician and a connoisseur of the great healing power of our plants, writes: “The Plantaggine and all its species are used in all its parts, roots, leaves, flowers and seeds. Like no other grass, it cleanses the blood, lungs and stomach thus doing great to those who have little or bad blood, weak lungs and kidneys and pale appearance; Which are affected by outbreaks and lichens and shed slightly; Who have the voice languid and remain as thin as goats even if dipped in butter. Good for sick children who despite the good and abundant food are always thin. ”
The species used in the popular pharmacopoeia and in herbal medicine are:
– Plantago psyllium (Psillio);
– Plantago major, has large, large, broad leaves and longer pits;
– Lanceolate plantago, very common in grassy plains, hill and low mountains.
Preparation Method –
Lanceolata Plantago is edible and can be harvested abundantly without fear of endangering the species’s survival, just because of its great ability to regenerate from perennial rhizome. It can be eaten raw in salad, choosing the most tender leaves, or boiled like bacon, or, mixed with other vegetables, in minestrons.
It can be eaten raw in salad, choosing the most tender leaves, or boiled like bacon, or, mixed with other vegetables, soups and soups.
Recent studies have also confirmed the officinal properties attributed to this plant by popular traditions.
Let’s see some recipes with the use of plantain:
Pasta with Pesto di Piantaggine.
Ingredients for four people:
- Two beautiful handfuls of plantain leaves. Use the more internal leaves and hold. Half cup almonds (or even walnuts), Salt, Oil, Parmigiano Reggiano and 320 grams of whole pasta. Chop the almonds and cut the plantain leaves with a sharp knife before putting them in the mixer (better with the mortar). Add oil q.b. And salt and smooth the whole until you get a homogenous cream. Finally add the Parmesan cheese. I do not recommend the pecorino because having the plantation a rather delicate flavor I fear that the cheese then takes over. With this pesto season the whole pasta cooked in plenty of salt water. Spray it with parmesan and serve hot.
Among herbs with herbs, plant pesto is one of the most fragrant and quick to prepare. Among the edible plants and wild herbs that you can grow the largest or average plant is one of the most suitable for recipes in the kitchen.
How to use pesto plantar? We recommend serving it abundantly on toast or how to drank. Its flavor vaguely reminiscent of fungus. Obviously this pesto is also suitable for seasoning a nice pasta dish.
To prepare the plantago pesto you can use a mortar or a small blender and follow these simple steps:
Finely cut the plantain leaves perpendicularly to ribs, beat or smooth all together with oil and salt, add chopped nuts and cheese to pesto, along with plenty of black pepper and sprinkled with a spoon. There are innumerable varieties of pesto, obtained with various wild herbs and aromatic herbs. Try Experimenting!
You can vary the taste and scent using other oils and oilseeds. Wild plants have strong tastes, so they are also well matched with more decisive oils such as sunflower, nuts or pumpkin seeds.
Among officinal preparations, however, remember the herbal tea that is highly recommended against the liver and bladder. Against bronchitis, pulmonary asthma and bronchial asthma make a great effect and should be prepared as follows:
Bring a cup of water to the boil with a lemon slice (without the skin, if treated with pesticides) and a dessert spoon filled with brown candy sugar; Rinse the stove for four to five times, then remove it from the stove and add only one teaspoonful dessert spoon of herbal mixture. Allow it to rest for thirty seconds. In severe cases, the herbal tea should be prepared three to four times a day and soured as hot as possible.
Another herb may be prepared as follows:
A dessert spoon filled with 1/4 liter of water, blanch only, let it rest briefly.
Mixture of herbal tea: a dessert spoon filled with the mix of Piantaggine and Serpillo leaves in equal parts; Bake with 1/4 liter of water (see text).
Wash fresh Leaf Plants or Lanceolata leaves; Crush them with the chisel on the chopping board until you get a mash and apply it on the side.
Syrup, 1st type:
- Skip four grilled handfuls of washed leaves of Piantaggine. Add a little water, 300 g of raw sugar and 250 g of honey to the saucepan. Boil slowly and always with the ladle until you get a dense liquid that is still warm in glass jars; Once cooled, store in the refrigerator.
Syrup, 2nd type:
- In a fairly large glass jar, the washed leaves and the raw sugar are layered, then the whole thing is energetically compressed. The mass lay. In the next few days, repeat the operation until nothing goes into the jar again. Dig a hole in a sheltered garden area and put the jar closed with 4 layers of parchment. Place you on a table, and on this a stone. So cover it with the ground. The table and the stone, however, must remain in sight. The uniform temperature of the earth will make the sugar and the leaves ferment, turning them into a syrup. After about 3 months to recover the pot, squeeze the juice through a fruit press (not a cloth), bring it briefly to the boiling and pour it into sealed glass jars. Those who can not make this type of fermentation leave the pot in the sun or in the vicinity of a heat source until the syrup is formed. This syrup must also be briefly brought to boiling.
As it is said in the ancient herbivores, Piantaggine seed suits against the formation of calculations if they take eight grams a day. In addition he drinks her tea. Piantaggine syrup purifies the blood from all residues and pathogens. He should do a real treat by dipping it daily with a table spoon before meals (a dessert spoon for children).
Farmers’ environment has been known since the earliest times that Plantago is a healer.
The fresh, chopped leaves are useful against cracking, cuts, wasps and even bites of angry dogs, poisonous animals and vipers; Against these, in emergency cases, when it is not possible to seek immediate medical attention. In an ancient herbarium it is written: “When a toad is point by a spider, it rushes to a planter: there is relief.”
It seems to have incredibly beneficial effects against tumors, if treated with chopped fresh leaves. So the leaves applied on the diseased areas benefit against malignant glandular diseases. In these cases, however, it is advisable to macerate the fresh (in cases of emergency it may also be taken from the dried one) of Maggiorana (Origanum majorana) in olive oil. You put the Maggioran in a bottle, pour it over the oil and leave it in a heated place for ten days. Maggiorana oil thus obtained is spread on the diseased glands which then cover with Chopped Piantaggine leaves and ultimately bandages the diseased part with a cloth. In a short time there will be an improvement.
Piantaggine is considered to be a safe plant with no contraindications, which is also suitable for children.
– Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
– Treben M., 2000. The Health of the Lord’s Pharmacy, Tips and Experiences with Medicinal Herbs, Ennsthaler Editore.
– Pignatti S., 1982. Flora d’Italia, Edagricole, Bologna.
– Conti F., Abbate G., Alessandrini A., Blasi C. (eds.), 2005. An annotated checklist of the Italian vascular flora, Palombi Editore.
Caution: Pharmaceutical applications and surgical uses are indicated for information purposes only; they are not prescription-related in any way; Therefore, no liability is accepted for their use for any aesthetic or food purpose.