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Nutritional value of chilli pepper

Nutritional value of chilli pepper

Some species fall under the name of chili pepper, which are in particular:
– Capsicum annuum: cayenne pepper, jalapeño, serrano, Thai, Calabrian chilli, black chilli (also known as black fire violet);
– Capsicum baccatum: Aji Amarillo and Lemon Drop chili pepper.
– Capsicum chinense: the habanero, the Carolina reaper, the bhut jolokia;
– Capsicum frutescens: tabasco;
– Capsicum pubescens: the rocoto.
In this sheet we will refer to Capsicum annuum which is the most cultivated species in the world among the five main species of the Capsicum genus. In addition to many cultivars, it also includes C. annuum var. aviculare (chiltepin), considered by many to be the wild subspecies closest to the common ancestor of all species, evolved between Brazil and Bolivia, as it boasts the largest range: Peru, Caribbean, Argentina, reaching up to Texas, Florida, California, Louisiana and Arizona.

Characteristics –
This chili pepper was already cultivated when the Spaniards arrived in Mexico, the Aztecs had developed dozens of varieties of C. annuum, according to the historian Bernardino de Sahagún who lived around 1529.
Today C. annuum is the main cultivated species in China, Korea, India, Italy, Mexico, the Malaysian archipelago and Hungary.
Chili pepper is a perennial or annual herbaceous plant, depending on the growing conditions. Its size varies greatly, but it usually reaches a height of between 30 centimeters and 1 meter.
The leaves are lanceolate or oval in shape, dark green in color. They are arranged alternately along the branches of the plant.
The flowers are usually white or pale yellow. They are single or occur in small groups, and are often solitary in the leaf axils.
The fruits are actual chili peppers. These can vary greatly in size, shape, color and spiciness depending on the variety. Some varieties produce small, sweet chili peppers, while others produce hot chili peppers. The colors of the fruits can be red, green, yellow, orange or even purple, depending on maturity.
The spiciness of chili peppers is due to the presence of a chemical substance called capsaicin, which is mainly concentrated in the internal part of the fruits, where the seeds and white membranes are found. The spiciness varies greatly from variety to variety.
Capsicum annuum is cultivated in many parts of the world, often as an ornamental plant or for food purposes. It requires a warm, temperate climate and can be grown in gardens, pots or greenhouses.
Chillies are used in cooking to add flavor and spiciness to a variety of dishes. They can be eaten fresh, dried, or used to make hot sauces and condiments.

Nutritional sheet –
The nutritional composition of chili peppers can vary greatly based on the type and degree of ripeness. Below are typical values per 100 grams of sweet green chili peppers (commonly known as green peppers) and per 100 grams of sweet red peppers:
Sweet green peppers (100g):
– Calories: approximately 20 kcal
– Protein: approximately 0.86 g
– Carbohydrates: approximately 4.64 g
– Sugars: approximately 2.4 g
– Fibres: approximately 1.5 g
– Fat: approximately 0.17 g
– Vitamin C: approximately 80.4 mg (134% of the recommended daily intake)
– Vitamin A: approximately 313 IU (6% of the recommended daily intake)
– Vitamin B6: approximately 0.29 mg (14% of the recommended daily intake)
– Vitamin K: approximately 7.4 mcg (9% of the recommended daily intake)
Sweet red peppers (100g):
– Calories: approximately 31 kcal
– Protein: approximately 0.99 g
– Carbohydrates: approximately 6.03 g
– Sugars: approximately 4.2 g
– Fibers: approximately 2.1 g
– Fat: approximately 0.3 g
– Vitamin C: approximately 127.7 mg (213% of the recommended daily intake)
– Vitamin A: approximately 1577 IU (32% of the recommended daily intake)
– Vitamin B6: approximately 0.4 mg (20% of the recommended daily intake)
– Vitamin K: approximately 5.4 mcg (7% of the recommended daily intake)
It’s important to note that hot peppers contain capsaicin, a substance that gives their distinctive spicy flavor and which may have health benefits, but may be spicy for some people. Capsaicin can vary greatly in concentration depending on the type of hot pepper.
Furthermore, the exact nutritional values may vary slightly depending on the specific variety of peppers and their degree of ripeness. However, peppers are generally a good source of vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin B6, and fiber, making them a healthy addition to your diet.

Property –
Chillies are a good source of vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin B6, vitamin K and folate. They are also rich in antioxidants like capsaicin, which contributes to their tangy flavor.
Capsaicin, found in hot peppers, is known for its antioxidant properties and may have health benefits, including the ability to reduce inflammation and protect cells from free radical damage.
Consuming peppers can help improve digestion, boost immunity and promote eye health due to the high vitamin A content.
The spiciness of peppers varies greatly between different varieties, from the sweetness of sweet peppers to hot peppers such as jalapeño, serrano, cayenne and habanero peppers.
Peppers are used in numerous culinary recipes, including salads, sauces, meat and fish dishes, soups and vegetarian dishes. They can be eaten raw or cooked.
Peppers can come in a wide range of shapes, from bell-shaped ones to long, thin peppers. The colors also vary depending on the ripeness of the fruit.
Some varieties of Capsicum annuum are grown as ornamental plants for the beauty of their colorful fruits.
The spiciness of peppers is measured on the Scoville scale, which assigns a spiciness value in Scoville units (SHU). This scale ranges from sweet peppers with zero SHU to the hottest peppers, which can exceed one million SHU, such as the Carolina Reaper pepper.
In many parts of the world, there are traditional varieties of Capsicum annuum grown for specific culinary purposes, such as the Spanish allspice or the Mexican jalapeño pepper.

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