An Eco-sustainable World
Species Fungi

Hypholoma fasciculare

Hypholoma fasciculare

The sulphur tuft or clustered woodlover (Hypholoma fasciculare (Huds.) P. Kumm. 1871) is a mushroom belonging to the Strophariaceae family.

Systematic –
From a systematic point of view it belongs to:
Eukaryota domain,
Fungi Kingdom,
Division Basidiomycota,
Class Basidiomycetes,
Order Agaricales,
Family Strophariaceae,
Genus Hypholoma,
Species H. fasciculare.
The terms are synonymous:
– Agaricus elaeodes Fr.;
– Agaricus fascicularis Huds.;
– Agaricus fascicularis subsp. megapotamicus Speg.;
– Agaricus fascicularis var. praticola Pers.;
– Agaricus fascicularis var. primulus Pers.;
– Agaricus praticola (Pers.) J.Otto;
– Agaricus sadleri Berk. & Broome;
– Agaricus subviridis Berk. & M.A.Curtis;
– Clitocybe sadleri (Berk. & Broome) Sacc.;
– Dryophila fascicularis (Huds.) Quél.;
– Dryophyila fascicularis (Huds.) Quél.;
– Geophila fascicularis (Huds.) Quél.;
– Geophila fascicularis var. elaeodes (Fr.) Quél.;
– Hypholoma elaeodes (Fr.) Gillet;
– Hypholoma fasciculare f. ceratophorum Pilát;
– Hypholoma fasciculare f. foedinarum Pilát;
– Hypholoma fasciculare f. radicata Killerm.;
– Hypholoma fasciculare f. sterilis J.E.Lange;
– Hypholoma fasciculare var. armeniacum (Y.S.Chang & A.K.Mills) Y.S.Chang, A.K.Mills, G.M.Gates & Ratkowsky;
– Hypholoma fasciculare var. griseophyllum J.Aug.Schmitt;
– Hypholoma fasciculare var. luteolamellatum Blanco-Dios;
– Hypholoma fasciculare var. mitis Raithelh.;
– Hypholoma fasciculare var. obtusum Schulzer;
– Hypholoma fasciculare var. pusillum J.E.Lange;
– Hypholoma fasciculare var. subviride (Berk. & M.A.Curtis) Krieglst.;
– Hypholoma megapotamicum (Speg.) Sacc.;
– Hypholoma subviride (Berk. & M.A.Curtis) Dennis;
– Hypholoma sulphureum G.M.Taylor & P.K.Buchanan;
– Naemateloma fasciculare (Hudson) Karst.;
– Naematoloma elaeodes (Fr.) P.Karst.;
– Naematoloma fasciculare (Huds.) P.Karst.;
– Naematoloma fasciculare var. elaeodes (Fr.) L.Corb.;
– Naematoloma subviride (Berk. & M.A.Curtis) A.H.Sm.;
– Nematoloma elaeodes (Fr.) Konrad & Maubl.;
– Nematoloma fasciculare (Huds.) P.Karst.;
– Pratella fascicularis (Huds.) Gray;
– Psilocybe fascicularis (Huds.) Kühner;
– Psilocybe fascicularis (Huds.) Noordel.;
– Psilocybe fascicularis subsp. fascicularis;
– Psilocybe fascicularis var. armeniaca Y.S.Chang & A.K.Mills;
– Psilocybe fascicularis var. pusilla (J.E.Lange) Noordel.;
– Psilocybe subviridis (Berk. & M.A.Curtis) Sacc..
Within this species some authors recognize the following forms:
– Hypholoma fasciculare f. fasciculare;
– Hypholoma fasciculare f. sadleri;
– Hypholoma fasciculare f. subannulatum Bon, 2003.

Etymology –
The term Hypholoma comes from the Greek ὑφος hýphos, fabric and from λῶμα loma, hem, fringe: with the edge decorated with felt-like fringes.
The specific epithet fasciculus comes from Latin and means bundle, diminutive of fáscis fasces: arranged in bundles, tight in a bunch, tufted.

Geographic Distribution and Habitat –
Hypholoma fasciculare is a fungus that is widespread and abundant in northern Europe and North America. It has been recorded from Iran, and also from eastern Anatolia to Türkiye.
It reproduces from April to November, almost everywhere, in large clumps on trunks or stumps or on the ground near old trees. It attacks both dead wood (saprophyte) and living wood (parasite), causing white decay of roots and trunks of broad-leaved and coniferous trees.
Its habitat is that of both broad-leaved and coniferous trees. It is most commonly found on decaying deciduous wood due to the lower lignin content of this wood compared to coniferous wood.

Recognition –
Hypholoma fasciculare is a mushroom that has a cap with a diameter of 3-7 cm, fleshy, hemispherical, then bell-shaped, slightly umbonate in the centre, sulphine-yellow in colour, rusty in the centre, with a thin and often fringed margin.
The gills are radial, dense, attached to the stem, first yellow in color, then greenish and finally olive-brown.
The stem is 5-12 cm x 6-10 mm, cylindrical, hollow, long and thin, of an elastic consistency, of a darker yellow color at the base, lacking a true ring, replaced by filaments called veil or curtain, not always very visible.
The meat is yellow in colour, sometimes fleshy and with an unpleasant odor and flavour, often intensely bitter, sometimes bitterish; in any case always unpleasant.
Under the microscope, elliptical, amygdaliform, spores of a purple-blackish or brownish-purple color in mass, smooth, measuring 6-7.5 x 4-4.5 µm, are highlighted.

Cultivation –
Hypholoma fasciculare is an uncultivated toxic mushroom.

Customs and Traditions –
Hypholoma fasciculare is a mushroom which, although not edible, is known by various common names; among these we remember: in Italy “falso chiodino”, “zolfino”; in France “Hypholome en touffes”, “Hypholome fasciculé”; in Spain “bolet de pi”; in England “sulphur tuft” “clustered woodlover”; in “Germany” “Grünblättrige” “Schwefelkopf”.
It is a toxic mushroom that causes gastrointestinal and laxative intoxication.
It can be confused with some yellow forms of Armillaria mellea, which has the same tufted shape but has a umbonate cap of various colors (from yellow to brown) adorned with scales, a clear ring, white flesh instead of yellow, and a full stem instead. which is hollow and thin and finally the spores are white in mass and not grey-blackish.
Occasionally it can be confused by the more inexperienced with Gymnopilus penetrans (inedible), a lignicolous mushroom with a rather marked yellow color and a bitter taste.
It can also be confused with:
– Hypholoma lateritium (not edible), which however has colors more towards brick red, yellowish and bitter flesh and brown spores;
– Hypholoma capnoides (edible with caution);
– Kuehneromyces mutabilis (excellent edible), which however has a smooth and hygrophanous cap (it changes color as humidity conditions vary), has a scaly stem under the ring and yellow-ochre colored gills and spores.
It is easy to realize a possible mistake because, as already mentioned, Hypholoma fasciculare, unlike Armillaria mellea or Hypholoma capnoides, has a bitter taste.
In general, it is the species that is most easily mistaken, due to some similarity and the way it grows, with Armillaria mellea, from which its common name “false nail” derives.
The main measure to avoid unlikely but possible confusions is tasting, as these are species with very bitter-tasting meat. However, we must pay close attention to the flavor as the acridity of this mushroom varies significantly depending on the growth areas.
For the reasons indicated above, maximum caution is recommended.
The toxicity of this mushroom has been attributed, at least partially, to the toxic steroids fasciculol E and fasciculol F (in mice, with LD50 (i.p.) values of 50 mg/kg and 168 mg/kg, respectively). In humans, symptoms may be delayed for 5 to 10 hours after consumption, after which diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, proteinuria, and collapse may occur. Paralysis and visual disturbances have been recorded. Symptoms generally resolve within a few days.
Mushroom extracts show anticoagulant effects.

Preparation Method –
Hypholoma fasciculare is an inedible, toxic mushroom that causes severe stomach pain and diarrhea. It is not thermolabile with toxic substances, therefore it is toxic even after cooking.

Guido Bissanti

– Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
– GBIF, the Global Biodiversity Information Facility.
– Cetto B., 2008. Mushrooms from life, Saturnia, Trento.
– Pignatti S., 1982. Flora d’Italia, Edagricole, Bologna.
– Conti F., Abbate G., Alessandrini A., Blasi C. (ed.), 2005. An annotated checklist of the Italian vascular flora, Palombi Editore.

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Attention: Pharmaceutical applications and food uses are indicated for informational purposes only, they do not represent in any way a medical prescription; we therefore decline any responsibility for their use for healing, aesthetic or food purposes.

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