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Geographic map of Serbia

Geographic map of Serbia

Serbia is a landlocked state in south-eastern Europe, between the Pannonian Lowland and the Balkan Peninsula.
This country has approximately 7 million inhabitants and its capital is Belgrade, with 1,197,714 inhabitants as of 2022.
This Republic was part of Yugoslavia until 1992, subsequently reduced to the sole state union of Serbia and Montenegro, but, following the referendum of 21 May 2006, Montenegro voted for independence, the federation was dissolved and Serbia ( as well as Montenegro) has become a sovereign state.

Geography –
Serbia is located in the Balkan region, bordering several countries, including Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
Serbia’s geography is varied, with fertile plains, hills and mountains. Plains occupy most of the northern part of the country, while mountain ranges dominate the south.
Serbia is crossed by several major rivers, including the Danube, one of the longest rivers in Europe, which flows along the country’s northern border. Other significant rivers include the Sava, Drina and Morava.
The mountains occupy much of southern Serbia. The most significant mountains include the Dinaric Mountains, the Šar Mountains, and the Rhodope Mountains. The highest point in the country is Mount Midžor, which is located in the Balkan Mountains and reaches an altitude of approximately 2,169 meters.
In summary, Serbia’s geography offers a diverse combination of landscapes, ranging from fertile plains to majestic mountains, making it an interesting region from a geographical and naturalistic point of view.

Climate –
Serbia has a varied climate, influenced by different geographical characteristics. Generally, you can divide it into four distinct seasons.
Winters are cold, with average temperatures around freezing or even below freezing, especially in the northern and mountainous regions. Snowfall is common, especially in mountainous areas.
Spring is characterized by a gradual increase in temperatures. The days become longer and warmer, with flowers and vegetables blooming across the nation.
Summers are warm and often very hot, with temperatures can exceed 30°C, especially in the northern plains. The days are long and sunny. Mountainous regions offer a cooler retreat during the summer months.
Autumn is characterized by cooler temperatures and falling leaves. The days become shorter and temperatures gradually drop, setting the stage for the following winter.
In detail, the northern part of the country has a continental climate influenced by air masses coming from northern and eastern Europe, with cold winters and hot and humid summers, precipitation is distributed throughout the year.
In the southern and south-western part of the country the climate is influenced by the Mediterranean even if the Dinaric Alps form a barrier for the warm air masses; the climate is predominantly hot and dry in summer and autumn and relatively cold and rich in snowfall in winter.
Serbia can also be subject to extreme weather phenomena, such as strong summer storms or winter frosts. However, the climate varies greatly from region to region, with the northern plains tending to be hotter and drier than the mountainous regions of the south and east, which can have a cooler and wetter climate.

Flora –
The nature of Serbia is rich and varied. There are mountain ranges on Serbian territory that develop south of the Sava and Danube rivers. It is the rivers themselves that divide the country into two distinct areas: one mountainous and hilly, the other flat which coincides with the Pannonian plain. However, pollution is one of the most serious problems facing today’s Republic of Serbia. From what emerged from the results of the screening carried out by the European Union, the environmental policy of the Serbian state is completely incompatible with the model expected for an EU country, which, combined with the total absence of separate waste collection and an effective recycling system , will make chapter 27 (the one concerning environmental protection) one of the longest and most difficult to close. Tentative progress has been made in this regard since the country became an official candidate for EU accession and since tourism began to play an increasingly heavy role in the country’s economy. The 1999 NATO bombing caused serious damage to Serbia’s environmental structure, mainly due to the use of depleted uranium.
Five national parks have been established in the Republic:
Fruška Gora (250 km²),
Kopaonik (120 km²),
Tara National Park (220 km²),
Đerdap National Park (Iron Gates on the Danube) (640 km²),
Šar Planina (390 km²).
In addition to the national parks, there are 31 protected areas in Serbia. All national parks in Serbia are easily accessible and the management regime is very permissive and allows the population to live within the park. In the many picturesque villages within, visitors can choose between hotels and traditional homes.
Towards the end of the 17th century, Serbia was still a land with an uncontaminated environment. More than 90% of the territory was covered by oak and beech forests. Hence the name of the hilly central region Шумадија / Šumadija, which derives from the Serbian word Шума / Šuma, meaning forest. Over the last three centuries, also due to the industrial revolution, a large part of the forests have been transformed into agricultural and industrial land and today the forest area occupies only 27% of Serbia’s territory. The most common trees are beech, oak (there are almost 10 species), poplar, fir and Scottish and Austrian pine. Throughout Serbia, oak forests are as typical for plains and hills as beech forests for mountainous areas. In western Serbia, coniferous forests are common. The national parks, however, preserve rare and endemic species: the hackberry, the wild walnut tree, the Turkish hazel, the Pančić pine (Mount Tara), the Bosnian and Macedonian pine and the Macedonian oak.

Fauna –
Serbia’s extensive forests are a perfect habitat for many common wild animals: the wolf, for example, thrives in large numbers; then there is the brown bear, which is found in almost all Serbian national parks, especially near Mount Tara. The lynx, however, is found in a few protected areas, such as, for example, in Đerdap, while Suva Planina is famous for the large number of feral horses. The buzzard is widespread especially in western Serbia. Deer are found predominantly in the Vojvodina region, while wild boars, roe deer and rabbits are found throughout the country.

Guido Bissanti

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