Sweroside, whose term in the official IUPAC nomenclature is: (3S,4R,4aS)-4-ethenyl-3-[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy-4,4a,5,6-tetrahydro-3H-pyrano[3,4-c]pyran-8-one, is a glycoside.
The sweroside has a brute or molecular formula: C16H22O9 and is a molecule of natural origin found in Strychnos axillaris Colebr., Lonicera japonica Thunb., Swertia pseudochinensis Hara. and other species in which its presence has been confirmed.
Swertia is a traditional medicine used to treat hepatitis and was known as “hepatitis herb” in North China. Sveroside has a variety of pharmacological activities, and studies have revealed that sweroside has a significant protective effect on chemical-induced liver injury and liver fibrosis.
Through in vivo and in vitro studies, Yang et al. pointed out that in mice with methionine-choline deficiency-induced NASH, sweroside enhanced hepatic immune cell infiltration, triglyceride accumulation, and liver fibrosis, as well as inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages. The mechanism is related to the blockage of de novo mitochondrial DNA synthesis in the liver.
In addition, in vitro studies were carried out to ascertain the antioxidant, antidiabetic, neuroprotective and enzymatic inhibitory potential of sweroside.
The results revealed that sweroside showed antioxidant and inhibitory effects on the enzymes tested with the exception of AChE. It demonstrated good tyrosinase inhibitory capacity with 55.06 ± 1.85 mg kojic acid equivalent/g. As regards the antidiabetic capacity, the compound showed inhibitory activities of both amylase and glucosidase (respectively 0.10 ± 0.01 and 1.54 ± 0.01 mmol of acarbose equivalent/g).
In general, it has been shown that sweroside may be an important antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory supplement, but further in vivo and clinical studies are needed.
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