An Eco-sustainable World
Species Fungi

Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca

Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca

The false chanterelle or false chanterelle (Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca (Wulfen: Fries) Maire 1921) is a mushroom belonging to the Hygrophoropsidaceae family.

Systematic –
From a systematic point of view it belongs to:
Eukaryota domain,
Fungi Kingdom,
Division Basidiomycota,
Subdivision Agaricomycotina,
Class Agaricomycetes,
Subclass Agaricomycetidae,
Order Boletales,
Family Hygrophoropsidaceae,
Genus Hygrophoropsis.
Species H. aurantiaca.
The terms are synonymous:
– Agaricus aurantiacus Wulfen;
– Agaricus subcantharellus Sowerby;
– Cantharellus aurantiacus (Wulfen) Fr.;
– Cantharellus aurantiacus Krombh.;
– Cantharellus aurantiacus Wulfen;
– Cantharellus aurantiacus subsp. lacteus Fr.;
– Cantharellus aurantiacus var. congolensis Beeli;
– Cantharellus aurantiacus var. lactea Fr., 1821;
– Cantharellus aurantiacus var. pallidus Cooke;
– Cantharellus aurantiacus var. sowerbyi Fr.;
– Cantharellus brachypodes Chevall.;
– Cantharellus brachypodus Chevall.;
– Cantharellus lacteus (Fr.) Quél.;
– Cantharellus ravenelii Berk. & M.A.Curtis;
– Cantharellus rufescens Fr.;
– Clitocybe aurantiaca (Wulfen) Stud.-Steinh.;
– Clitocybe aurantiaca (Wulfen) Studer;
– Clitocybe aurantiaca var. albescens L.Corb.;
– Clitocybe aurantiaca var. lactea (Fr.) Rea;
– Clitocybe aurantiaca var. nigripes (Pers.) Rea;
– Clitocybe aurantiaca var. pallida (Cooke) R.Schulz;
– Clitocybe aurantiaca var. pallida Anon.;
– Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca (Wulfen) Maire ex Martin-Sans;
– Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca f. pallida (Cooke) Anon.;
– Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca f. pallida (Cooke) K. & R.;
– Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca f. pallida Cooke;
– Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca var. lactea (Fr.) Corner;
– Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca var. nana Singer;
– Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca var. nigripes (Pers.) Kühner & Romagn.;
– Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca var. pallida (Cooke) Heykoop & Esteve-Rav.;
– Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca var. pallida (Cooke) Kühner & Romagn.;
– Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca var. robusta Antonín;
– Hygrophoropsis aurantiacus var. pallida (Cooke) Heykoop & Esteve-Rav., 1995;
– Merulius aurantiacus (Wulfen) J.F.Gmel.;
– Merulius aurantiacus (Wulfen) Pers.;
– Merulius brachypodis (Chevall.) Kuntze;
– Merulius brachypodus (Chevall.) Kuntze;
– Merulius nigripes Pers.;
– Merulius ravenelii (Berk. & M.A.Curtis) Kuntze;
– Merulius rufescens (Fr.) Kuntze.

Etymology –
The term Hygrophoropsis comes from the Greek ὐγρόϛ hygrόs humid and from φορέω phoréo to bring, to have: which collects and conserves humidity, and from the Greek ὄψις ópsis appearance, resemblance: similar to a Hygrophorus.
The specific epithet aurantiaca derives from the Latin aurantíacus, due to the yellow-orange color of the carpophore or the flesh of these mushrooms.

Geographic Distribution and Habitat –
Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca is a mushroom that grows in summer and autumn in coniferous forests and beech forests, on decaying plant residues, often in groups of several specimens.
Its distribution is very wide. It is found in Europe and North America, both in hardwood and coniferous forests, as well as in heathlands, in summer and autumn. In Mexico it is common in coniferous forests. Other locations where it has been recorded include Central and South America, northern Asia, Australia and New Zealand.
It grows on the ground or on decaying wood, on burned areas of forests, and is often found near fallen trees and in tree stumps. It can also grow on wood chips used in gardening and landscaping, and therefore also appears on roadsides and other places where this material is used.
The fruiting bodies occur single to scattered or in clusters and can be very abundant. Generally considered a dry climate mushroom, it can be abundant when other mushrooms are scarce.
This saprophytic fungus obtains nutrients from forest waste and decaying wood, causing brown rot on the wood it grows on.
It is a not very common mushroom.

Recognition –
Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca is an inedible mushroom that can be recognized by having a cap of 3-6 cm in diameter, which is initially convex, then flat and finally depressed, ciathiform, sometimes funnel-shaped; the margin is thin, initially convoluted then extended, sinuous, lobed. The cuticle is finely felted, dry, orange, yellow-orange, orange-brown in colour, lighter towards the margin.
The hymenium is characterized by thick, large, rather narrow, forked lamellae running along the stem, without lamellae, of a yellow-orange or bright orange colour.
The stem is 2.5-5 × 0.7-1.5 cm, with a cylindrical section, attenuated towards the bottom, flared under the gills, sometimes curved or even sinuous, often eccentric, full then hollow, glabrous, of the same color as the hat or even a little darker.
The flesh is thick in the centre, thin at the edge, soft, pale yellow-orange in colour, brownish at the base of the stem. It has a light odor and a bitter taste.
Under the microscope, ellipsoidal, smooth, guttulate spores, 5.5-7 × 3.5-4.5 µm, can be seen. Basidia clavate, tetrasporic, with buckle joints, 33-37 × 7.5-9 µm. the cuticle is formed by irregularly intertwined hyphae, the terminal elements form a trichoderm with straight hyphae; buckle joints present.

Cultivation –
Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca is an inedible mushroom and of no interest in cultivation.

Customs and Traditions –
Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca is a mushroom known by various common names, among these are: “Cantarello arancioto”, “Gallinacciofalse” in Italy; “Fals rossinyol”, “Pixacà teronja”, “Zixahori faltsu” in Spain; “Chanterelle orangée” in France; “False chanterelle” in England; “Falscher Pfifferling”, “Orangegelber Gabelblätting” in Germany.
It is a not very common species which, due to its colour, can be confused with the excellent Cantharellus cibarius which however has a hymenophore made up of anastomosed pseudolamellae, ribs or pleats of the flesh, furthermore it has an apricot smell. Another similarity could be with Omphalorus olearius (De Candolle) Singer, but it is larger in size and the gills are not forked and there is the presence of lamellulae. Hygrophoropsis morganii (Peck) H.E. Bigelow is easily differentiated because it is smaller in size and has a strong aromatic odor like burnt candy or sugar.
According to some authors, Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca is considered edible.
According to other authors, this mushroom is considered poisonous and can cause serious digestive problems. Among other toxins, it contains high levels of the sugar alcohol arabitol. The mushroom was sometimes described as edible (though not tasty) until 1999. Fries described it as venenatus, meaning “poisonous”, in 1821. Considering the species edible, David Arora speculated that it may have been confused with similar-looking species. similar but decidedly poisonous to Omphalotus. Italian mycologist Nicola Sitta reported that the only case of poisoning he was aware of could be attributed to an idiosyncratic reaction as only one in three people who ate it had symptoms and concluded that it is harmless; it is consumed in Spain and France and can be sold legally in France and Belgium. In Italy it is not recommended due to its similarity to poisonous species. It was eaten, although not particularly appreciated, by the Zapotec people of Ixtlán de Juárez in Oaxaca. The Tepehuán people of northwestern Mexico also occasionally eat the mushroom, which in their native language they call guin’xacan (“delicious”) or kia’s gio’ (“iguana lard”); there it is commonly prepared by roasting over charcoal, or boiled and garnished with cheese.
However, due to the lack of absolute certainties, we advise against its consumption, both due to its rarity and the lack of certain evidence of edibility.
It is also reported that teratological forms (with abnormal development) of H. aurantiaca have been reported in the United Kingdom. The fruit bodies of these specimens were club-shaped with a wrinkled upper surface of twisted gill tissue. The general morphology of these forms is somewhat reminiscent of Clavariadelphus species. Although the cause of this abnormal development is not known with certainty, environmental pollutants or virus infection have been suggested as contributing factors.
The H. aurantiaca secretes large amounts of oxalic acid, a reducing agent and relatively strong acid. This stimulates erosion of the humus layer of the forest floor and affects the solubility and turnover of nutrients (particularly phosphorus and nitrogen), which in turn affects their availability for use by forest trees.

Preparation Method –
Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca is a mushroom whose consumption is not recommended both due to the uncertainty and discrepancy in edibility of some authors and due to its rarity

Guido Bissanti

– Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
– GBIF, the Global Biodiversity Information Facility.
– Cetto B., 2008. Mushrooms from life, Saturnia, Trento.
– Pignatti S., 1982. Flora d’Italia, Edagricole, Bologna.
– Conti F., Abbate G., Alessandrini A., Blasi C. (ed.), 2005. An annotated checklist of the Italian vascular flora, Palombi Editore.

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Attention: Pharmaceutical applications and food uses are indicated for informational purposes only, they do not represent in any way a medical prescription; we therefore decline any responsibility for their use for healing, aesthetic or food purposes.

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