An Eco-sustainable World
FishSpecies Animal

Eutrigla gurnardus

Eutrigla gurnardus

The grey gurnard (Eutrigla gurnardus Linnaeus, 1758) is a fish belonging to the Triglidae family.

Systematic –
From a systematic point of view it belongs to:
Eukaryota domain,
Kingdom Animalia,
Subkingdom Eumetazoa,
Phylum Chordata,
Subphylum Vertebrata,
Superclass Gnathostomata,
Class Actinopterygii,
Infraclass Teleostei,
Order Scorpaeniformes,
Suborder Scorpaenoidea,
Triglidae family,
Genus Eutrigla,
E. gurnardus species.
The term is basionym:
– Trigla gurnardus Linnaeus, 1758.
The terms are synonymous:
– Chelidonichthys gurnardus (Linnaeus, 1758);
– Eutrigla gunardus (Linnaeus, 1758);
– Eutrigla gurnardus subsp. gurnardus (Linnaeus, 1758);
– Eutrigla gurnardus subsp. milvus (Lacepède, 1801);
– Eutriglia gurnardus (Linnaeus, 1758);
– Eutroigla gurnardus (Linnaeus, 1758);
– Trigla gurnardus Linnaeus, 1758;
– Trigla milvus Lacepède, 1801.

Geographic Distribution and Habitat –
Eutrigla gurnardus is a fish that lives in the Mediterranean and Black Seas as well as in the Atlantic Ocean north up to Norway. It is not common in Italian seas.
In detail, it is found in the eastern Atlantic Ocean, from Iceland and Norway south to Morocco, in the North Sea and the southern Baltic Sea, as well as off the coast of Madeira. In the Mediterranean Sea, its range extends from eastern Spain to Turkey and the Black Sea.
The habitat of this fish is sandy seabeds but is rarely found on rocky substrates, as well as in muddy areas from the coast up to 140 metres. In the eastern Ionian Sea, depths of up to 340 meters have been recorded.

Description –
Eutrigla gurnardus has the bony plates of the head with grooves and blunt tubercles. The lateral line is made up of 70/75 bony shields.
The color can take on a gray and reddish livery. It can reach a size of 60 cm, but more commonly it is around 25-30 cm, especially in the Mediterranean.
In the first, the back and upper part of the sides varies from yellowish gray to dark green gray (possible bluish-white spots). The fins reflect the color of the body part. The dorsals have a bluish central band. The lateral line is pearly white. The gray form is Atlantic and rarely enters the Mediterranean.
The second livery varies from brick red to brownish red or purplish red. The first dorsal bears a black spot on the upper margin between the 1st and 5th rays. The belly in the two liveries is always whitish.
The eye is large, circular in shape and placed high up, near the rear end of the head. The inferior preopercular aculeus is developed.
The mouth is wide, low and cut horizontally; its opening does not reach the vertical passing from the anterior margin of the eye. The teeth, villiform, are on the maxillae and on the vomer.
The first dorsal fin has 8-9 spiny rays with the tips protruding from the interradial membrane. The second dorsal, made up of 19 soft rays, is low and extended. Both the first and second dorsals recline into a special groove. The anal is almost opposite to the second dorsal and has 18-20 soft rays. The caudal fin (16 rays) is large, with a slightly sunken posterior margin and pointed lobes. The pectorals (13 rays, of which the last 3 are free and elongated) are large, but do not reach the beginning of the anal. The ventral ones have 1 spiny and 5 soft rays and are larger than the pectoral ones.

Biology –
Eutrigla gurnardus is a fish whose reproduction takes place offshore and lasts from March to August.
The post-larval and juvenile stages lead a pelagic life.

Ecological Role –
Eutrigla gurnardus was first formally described in 1758 as Trigla gurnardus by Carl Linnaeus in the tenth edition of Systema Naturae with the type locality given as “British seas”. In 1938 the British ichthyologist Alec Frederick Fraser-Brunner classified this species in the monotypic genus Eutrigla. The genus name combines the prefix eu meaning “good” or “very” with the genus name Trigla. The specific name is a Latinization of the English word gurnard.
It is a benthic, gregarious species and in summer it pushes, sinking and re-emerging, to the surface. In the winter months it frequents depths between 20 and 200 metres, but can also go beyond 300 m.
It is a predatory species that feeds on crustaceans, mostly shrimp and coastal crabs, and small fish, such as gobies, flatfish, young Atlantic herring and sand eels. Like others of its species it produces sounds.
It is caught with trawl nets. He also takes the bait.
It is also caught casually and is only consumed in fish soup.
It has commercial importance as a food. The main producers are China, Taiwan and Japan. These three countries represent the vast majority of global production, with China alone accounting for over 60% of the total. Other significant producers include Indonesia, India and Vietnam.

Guido Bissanti

– Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
– GBIF, the Global Biodiversity Information Facility.
– Louisy P., 2016. Guide to the identification of marine fishes of Europe and the Mediterranean. Il Castello Editore, Milan.
– Nikiforos G., 2008. Fauna of the Mediterranean. Giunti Editore, Florence.

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