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Ectoine is an organic molecule with chemical formula: C6N2O2H10.
Ectoína is a substance found in nature and is known for its protective properties against environmental stress, such as drying, high or low temperature, UV radiation and other forms of stress. This molecule was isolated for the first time from halophilic bacteria, organisms capable of surviving in extreme environmental conditions.
Ectoine is found in high concentrations in halophilic microorganisms and was first identified in the microorganism Ectothiorhodospira halochloris, but has since been found in a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.
Among the species of bacteria in which ectoine has been found we report:
– Brevibacterium linens;
– Halomonas elongata;
– Marinococcus halophilus;
– Pseudomonas stutzeri;
– Halomonas titanicae;
– Halorhodospira halophila;
– Halomonas ventosae;
Ectoína has been studied for its potential use in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products, as it is believed to help protect cells from dehydration and damage caused by aggressive environmental factors. For example, it has been used in moisturizers, sun lotions and other skin care products.
The interest in ectoína derives from its ability to act as a protective agent for cells, helping to preserve their integrity in difficult environmental conditions. However, it is always important to conduct further scientific research to confirm and deepen the understanding of its effects and potential applications.
This substance acts on the human epidermis by protecting Langerhans cells from solar radiation. In fact, it is used as an ingredient in sunscreens.
Ectoine is synthesized in three subsequent enzymatic reactions starting from aspartic β-semialdehyde. The genes involved in biosynthesis are called ectA, ectB and ectC, and encode the enzymes L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid acetyltransferase, L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid transaminase and L-ectoine synthase, respectively.

Warning: The information provided is not medical advice and may not be accurate. The contents are for illustrative purposes only and do not replace medical advice.

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