Geographical map of Tajikistan
Geographical map of Tajikistan
Tajikistan is a Central Asian state that borders Afghanistan to the south, China to the east, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan to the north and Uzbekistan to the west.
This country has no access to the sea and has an area of 143,100 km², a population of 9,634,444 inhabitants as of 2020.
The capital of Tajikistan is Dushanbe, with 863,400 inhabitants as of 2020.
Since 9 September 1991, Tajikistan is a presidential republic.
Tajikistan, as mentioned, is a landlocked state and is the smallest state in Central Asia but the highest in terms of altitude. The territory is over 90% mountainous with peaks reaching 7,000 meters in height, characterized by two mountain ranges: the Trans-Alay chain in the north, and the Pamir in the south. The highest peaks in Central Asia are found in the Pamir, such as Ismail Samani Peak, the highest mountain in the country of 7 495 meters, Ibn Sina Peak (7 134 meters) and Korženevskaya Peak (7 105 meters). The main rivers are the Syr Darya, the Amu Darya, the Kafirnigan, the Vahš and the Pjandz.
Most of the rivers flow from east to west and eventually bring their waters to the Aral Sea basin. The only flat areas are in the northwest (part of the Fergana Valley) and in the southwestern tip of the country. The climate of the country is of a continental type, characterized by rather accentuated thermal excursions and of an alpine type in the higher areas. The winter temperature is often mitigated by a hot, dry wind from the mountainous areas. Very little rainfall, mainly concentrated in the western part of the country.
The climate of Tajikistan is purely continental and varies with altitude. In the valleys with a warm-temperate climate, summers are hot and dry; the average temperatures in July are 27 ° C in Khujand (Khojand) and 30 ° C in Kŭlob (Kulyab), located further south. The corresponding averages in January are, respectively, -1 ° C and 2 ° C. During particularly cold winters, temperatures of -20 ° C or even lower were recorded. Annual rainfall is scarce and varies between 150 and 250 mm, but reaches higher values in the Gissar valley. On the highlands, the climatic conditions are different: the average January temperature in Murghob, on the Pamir, is -20 ° C, but temperatures can drop as low as -46 ° C. In this area, rainfall, which falls mainly in summer, only rarely reaches 500-750 mm per year. The masses of humid air coming from the west rise up the valleys and, after reaching areas of low temperature, give rise to particularly intense localized precipitations, mainly in the form of heavy snow; a total of 75-150 cm of snow falls in the region every year.
The topographical and climatic variety has meant that Tajikistan is home to an extremely diverse plant life, with over 5000 species of flowers alone.
Its rugged and mountainous terrain gives rise to a varied landscape of unusual and unique habitats, ranging from hot, dry deserts to frozen mountains and glaciers, where grasses, bushes and shrubs generally predominate.
Tajikistan is a mountainous country with an incredibly rich landscape, fauna and culture.
The fauna of the country is numerous and varied and includes species such as the large gray monitor, the jerboa and the citello in the deserts and the deer, the jackal and the wild cat in the areas covered by forests or thick reeds. In the mountains, brown bears live at lower altitudes, and goats and golden eagles at higher altitudes.
Among the animals of this country it is necessary to highlight a snow leopard population of global importance. As a result, Tajikistan is recognized as part of the Central Asian mountain biodiversity hotspot.