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Mesembrine, whose name in the official IUPAC nomenclature is: (3aS,7aS)-3a-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-methyl-2,3,4,5,7,7a-hexahydroindol-6-one, it is an alkaloid present in the plant Mesembryanthemum tortuosum L. It has also been identified in Mesembryanthemum cordifolium, Delosperma echinatum and Oscularia deltoides.
Mesembrine has the chemical formula: C17H23NO3.
Historically, mesembrine was first isolated and characterized by Bodendorf, et al. in 1957.
Chemically it is a tricyclic molecule and has two bridgehead chiral carbons between the five-membered ring and the six-membered ring. Due to its structural bioactivity, mesembrine has been a target for total synthesis for the past 40 years. Over 40 total syntheses have been reported for mesembrine, most of which focus on different approaches and strategies for building the bicyclic ring system and quaternary carbon.
Mesembrine is a serotonin reuptake inhibitor (Ki = 1.4 nM) and, more recently, has also been found to behave as a weak inhibitor of the enzyme phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) (Ki = 7,800 nM).
Other in vitro research (2015) has shown that this alkaloid, in an extract of M. tortuosum, high in mesembrine, can exert antidepressant effects by acting as a monoamine releasing agent. Therefore, mesembrine likely plays a dominant role in antidepressant therapy.
Studies on rats have evaluated the effects of the extract of this plant, finding its analgesic and antidepressant potential. No adverse results were observed for a commercial extract up to 5,000 mg/kg per day in rats.

Warning: The information provided is not medical advice and may not be accurate. The contents are for illustrative purposes only and do not replace medical advice.

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