An Eco-sustainable World
Species Fungi

Chroogomphus rutilus

Chroogomphus rutilus

Brown slimecap or copper spike (Chroogomphus Rutilus (Schaeff.) O.K. Mill., 1964) is a mushroom belonging to the Gomphidiaceae family.

Systematic –
From a systematic point of view it belongs to:
Eukaryota domain,
Fungi kingdom,
Basidiomycot division,
Subdivision Agaricomycotine,
Class agaricomycetes,
Subclass agaricomycetidae,
Boletales order,
Gomphidiaceae family,
Genre chroogomphus,
Species C. Rutilus.
The term is basionym:
– Agaricus rutilus Schaeff ..
The terms are synonymous:
– Agaricus gomphus Pers.;
– Agaricus rufescens J.F.Gmel.;
– Agaricus viscidus L.;
– Agaricus viscidus subsp. atropunctus Pers.;
– Agaricus viscidus subsp. communis Alb. & Schwein.;
– Chroogomphus britannicus A.Z.M.Khan & Hora;
– Chroogomphus corallinus O.K.Mill. & Watling;
– Chroogomphus helveticus subsp. tatrensis (Pilát) Kuthan & Singer;
– Chroogomphus rutilus subsp. alabamensis (Singer) Singer;
– Chroogomphus rutilus subsp. michoacanensis Singer & Kuthan;
– Chroogomphus rutilus var. alabamensis (Singer) Blanco-Dios;
– Chroogomphus rutilus var. corallinus (O.K.Mill. & Watling) Watling;
– Chroogomphus rutilus var. michoacanensis (Singer & Kuthan) Blanco-Dios;
– Chroogomphus rutilus var. tatrensis (Pilát) Bon & Courtec.;
– Chroogomphus testaceus (Fr.) Příhoda;
– Cortinarius rutilus (Schaeff.) Gray;
– Cortinarius viscidus (L.) Gray;
– Gomphidius corallinus (O.K.Mill. & Watling) Kotl. & Pouzar;
– Gomphidius helveticus var. tatrensis (Pilát) Pilát & Dermek;
– Gomphidius litigiosus Britzelm.;
– Gomphidius rutilus (Schaeff.) S.Lundell;
– Gomphidius rutilus f. testaceus (Fr.) Pilát & Dermek;
– Gomphidius rutilus subsp. alabamensis Singer;
– Gomphidius rutilus var. litigiosus (Britzelm.) Singer;
– Gomphidius rutilus var. testaceus (Fr.) Singer;
– Gomphidius viscidus (L.) Fr.;
– Gomphidius viscidus f. columbiana Kauffman;
– Gomphidius viscidus f. giganteus J.E.Lange;
– Gomphidius viscidus f. testaceus (Fr.) Kavina;
– Gomphidius viscidus f. truncicola Theodor.;
– Gomphidius viscidus subsp. testaceus (Fr.) Sacc.;
– Gomphidius viscidus subsp. testaceus Fr.;
– Gomphidius viscidus var. columbianus (Kauffman) E.K.Cash;
– Gomphidius viscidus var. rutilus (Schaeff.) Quél.;
– Gomphidius viscidus var. tatrensis Pilát;
– Gomphidius viscidus var. testaceus Fr.;
– Gomphus rutilus (Schaeff.) Weinm.;
– Gomphus viscidus (L.) P.Kumm..
Two forms are recognized within this species:
– Chroogomphus rutilus f. rutilus;
– Chroogomphus rutilus f. testaceus Pilat & Dermek.

Etymology –
The term chroogomphus comes from the Greek χρόα chróa surface or color of the epidermis, color and by γόμφος gómphos nail: from the shape of a colored nail.
The specific epithet rutilus comes from the Latin “rútitus”, that is, reddish, flaming.

Geographical distribution and habitat –
Chroogomphus rutilus is a mushroom that lives on Pinus species and is located in Europe and North America.
His habitat is that of the coniferous woods, Pinus Pinea and Pinus Pinaster in the Mediterranean environment, Pinus Nigra and Pinus Sylvestris in the mountains, where he fruits in summer-autumn.

Recognition –
Chroogomphus rutilus is recognized to have the fleshy, slimy, umboned, almost conical hat, then paved, copper -colored and a little win, rarely brown or yellow, of 3–10 cm in diameter.
The iMenio is with sparse lamella, large, starting on the stem, easily detachable by the hat; Ocher-blossom, then purple-gray and finally brunastre with the sharp yellow and flocculose.
The stem is high (3–8 cm in height), firm, full, fibrillosa, cylindrical, thinning at the base; Yellow, then concolor to the hair, but yellowish in the foot.
The curtain is glutinous in wet time, in the shape of slender filaments with dry time; of AmeTistine color, ephemeral.
The meat is firm, compact, yellow-asc, darker that of the stem, yellow to the foot.
The smell is weakly aromatic and the flavor is grateful (mild like hazelnut).
Fusiform spores, brown-scures, black in mass, 15-22 x 6-8 µm are observed under the microscope. The basids are clavates, tetrarasporti, without arrivals in buckle, 50 – 63 × 11 – 14.5 µm; The cheilocystides and pleurocystides are numerous, cylinder, just ventricosis, encrusted, 127.5 – 147.5 × 15 – 20 µm.

Cultivation –
Chroogomphus rutilus is a mushroom that grows in symbiosis with two needles and is not cultivated.

Uses and traditions –
Chroogomphus rutilus is a kind of mushroom in the Gomphidiaceae family described for the first time scientifically as Agaricus Rutilus by Jacob Christian Schäffer in 1774, he was transferred to the genus Chroogomphus in 1964 by Orson K. Miller, Jr.
This mushroom is known with various common names among which we remember: “Chiodotto”, “Chiodello” (Italian); “Brown Slimecap”, “Copper Spike” (English); “Gomphide Rutilant” (French); “Viscioso swelling”, “Coma de fordiu”, “Lerdeki Marroi” (Spanish).
It is a fairly common and widespread mushroom, edible but of little value.
It can be confused with:
– Chroogomphus helveticus (Singer) M.M. However, Moser, who is in a lower size, has a velvety, fibrillose hat, just slimy in wet time, orange yellow in color, is stained with reddish rubbing; The lamellae are more pale, blackish with maturity; stem with tomentosity and color similar to that of the hat, at the pressure of Bruno Orange is stained and then darkened; Compact meat, orange ocher, darker at the base of the stem.
– Cortinarius rubellus Cooke, 1887 (which is one of the most dangerous mushrooms; affects kidneys and liver liver even very long – from 3 to 14 days from ingestion) and other dangerous cortinars of the Lepocybe and Dermocybe subgenre.

Preparation methods –
Chroogomphus rutilus is a little value edible mushroom; However, the collection and consumption also advises against the similarity with poisonous or mortal species (e.g. small reddish cortinars).

Guido Bissanti

– Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
– Gbif, The Global Biodiversity Information Facility.
– Cetto B., 2008. The mushrooms from the true, Saturnia, Trento.
– Pignatti S., 1982. Flora of Italy, Edagricole, Bologna.
– Conti F., Abbate G., Alessandrini A., Blasi C. (edited by), 2005. An annotated checklist of the Italian Vascular Flora, Palombi Editore.

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Attention: pharmaceutical applications and halimurgical uses are indicated to mere information purpose, do not represent in any way medical prescription; Therefore, any responsibility for their use for curative, aesthetic or food purposes is declined.

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