An Eco-sustainable World
ArborealSpecies Plant

Mangifera casturi

Mangifera casturi

The Kalimantan mango (Mangifera casturi Kosterm.) is an arboreal species belonging to the Anacardiaceae family.

Systematic –
From a systematic point of view it belongs to:
Eukaryota domain,
Kingdom Plantae,
Division Magnoliophyta,
Class Magnoliopsida,
Subclass Rosidae,
Sapindales Order,
Family Anacardiaceae,
Genus Mangifera,
Species M. casturi.

Etymology –
The term Mangifera comes from the Indian word mángo, name of a fruit, and from féro porta: which produces fruits similar to those of a mango.
The epithet casturi derives from the local name “kasturi”.

Geographic Distribution and Habitat –
The Mangifera casturi is an endemic species of the Banjarmasin region, in southern Borneo.
Its natural habitat has been destroyed by deforestation so the plant is extinct in nature but only present in cultivation.

Description –
The Mangifera casturi is an evergreen tree that can reach a height of 25 meters.
The trunk is straight, can be free of branches up to 15 meters and can have 40 – 115 cm in diameter.
The color of the bark ranges from whitish gray to light brown.
The leaves have a pointed ovoid shape and are dark purple in color when young.
The flowers are grouped in terminal panicles 10-40 centimeters long. The color of the flower is pinkish white, with a smell reminiscent of lily of the valley. Flowering is induced by a prolonged (4-5 months) rest of the terminal bud of each branch. This rest can occur independently due to drought, reduced vegetative vigor or low temperatures. If this rest does not occur, upon opening the bud will show vegetative and non-floral development. Very few of the flowers develop the fruit, which also has a high drop.
The fruits are ovoid drupes, similar to other mangoes but smaller (weighing less than 80 grams), with a green skin dotted with brown. The pulp is dark orange and very tasty. It has more fiber than other varieties.

Cultivation –
Mangifera casturi is an evergreen tree that is no longer known in the wild, but is often cultivated for its fruit.
This mango grows well in low altitude terrain with alluvial soils and sufficient water. They are grown for home consumption and are not sold in markets. They are grown exclusively by private growers, as wild harvesting is no longer possible.
It is a plant of the humid tropics that grows in areas subject to heavy rainfall without a dry season. It is an excellent fruiting plant for the more humid tropics, it seems immune to anthracnose and the fruit is not (or only rarely) attacked by beetles.
There are different forms with characteristic fruits.
Plants can bear fruit well and regularly as early as 10 years of age, often producing two crops a year.
The fruits, much appreciated by the local population despite the high cost and scarcity of supply, are mainly consumed fresh, but tasty jams can also be made from them. Fruiting is abundant, but inconsistent.
It generally reproduces by seed, which must be fresh for high germination, kept in water at 20-25° C for a few hours and placed to root in a sandy substrate at the same temperature. Germination occurs within 10-20 days.

Customs and Traditions –
Mangifera casturi is a plant known by some common names, including: “buah kasturi”, (Indonesian); “kalimantan mango” (English).
Despite the good organoleptic characteristics of the fruit and its resistance to humid environments and to fungal infections, such as anthracnose, and for these reasons it is potentially an excellent rootstock for the common mango (Mangifera indica), the species is rarely cultivated, except outside of a restricted area near the city of Banjarmasin in southern Borneo, of which it is the floral emblem, due to its slow growth, taking many years before entering into production starting from seed, and due to the small size of the fruits.
This mango is one of 31 mango varieties that can be found in Kalimantan, the Indonesian province of Borneo. It is one of the symbols of the province of South Kalimantan, and has been reported as extinct in situ (extinct in the wild) by the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) since 1998 because they have disappeared from their natural habitat. Due to extreme deforestation in the Kalimantan area, the region’s rich biodiversity and natural resources are being lost. Coal mining and palm oil production, along with limited legislation regarding the sale and use of land, have destroyed much of the natural ecosystem. The extinction of this variety has affected other species in South Kalimantan, such as wild bees, birds, bats and others.

Preparation Method –
Mangifera casturi is a plant that produces fruits similar to the other Mangifera indica species but smaller. These fruits have a fibrous pulp, orange in color and with a very pleasant aroma and flavour.
The tree produces delicious purple-black mango-like fruits with very sweet pulp and excellent flavor.
The fruits can be consumed in the same way as the better-known mango fruit.
No other particular uses are known.

Guido Bissanti

– Acta Plantarum – Flora of the Italian Regions.
– Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
– GBIF, the Global Biodiversity Information Facility.
– Useful Tropical Plants Database.
– Conti F., Abbate G., Alessandrini A., Blasi C. (ed.), 2005. An annotated checklist of the Italian vascular flora, Palombi Editore.
– Pignatti S., 1982. Flora d’Italia, Edagricole, Bologna.
– Treben M., 2000. Health from the Lord’s Pharmacy, Advice and experiences with medicinal herbs, Ennsthaler Editore.

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Attention: Pharmaceutical applications and food uses are indicated for informational purposes only, they do not represent in any way a medical prescription; we therefore decline any responsibility for their use for healing, aesthetic or food purposes.

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