An Eco-sustainable World
Nature to be saved



Honshū is Japan’s largest island. On this island there are, in addition to the capital Tokyo, some of the largest and most important cities in the country such as Hiroshima, Kawasaki, Kobe, Kyoto, Nagoya, Nara, Osaka, Sendai and Yokohama.

Etymology –
The etymology of the island of Honshū has interesting historical and linguistic roots. The name “Honshū” (本州) is of Japanese origin and can be divided into two parts:
1. “Hon” (本): This Japanese character means “main” or “original.” In this context, it refers to the importance of the island of Honshū as the main island of Japan in terms of size and population. The use of “Hon” suggests that Honshū is the main or mother land of the Japanese archipelago.
2. “Shū” (州): This character indicates a “province” or administrative entity. In the past, the island of Honshū was divided into various provinces, each with its own name. This character reflects the fact that Honshū was historically divided into several administrative regions.

Geographical Features –
Honshū is the largest of Japan’s four main islands and represents the geographic, political and economic heart of the country.
Honshū is Japan’s largest island, with an area of approximately 227,414 square kilometers. It is located in the central part of the Japanese archipelago and extends from north to south.
Honshū Island is characterized by numerous mountain ranges. The most famous of them is the Japanese Alps range, which crosses the island from north to south. Among the highest peaks are Mount Fuji, Mount Tateyama and Mount Hotaka.
Honshū is crossed by many rivers, including the Shinano River, the longest in Japan, which flows through the central plain of Honshū.
East of the Japanese Alps lies the Kanto Plain, which includes the city of Tokyo, the capital of Japan, and Yokohama. West of the Japanese Alps lies the Kansai Plain, which includes major cities such as Osaka, Kyoto and Kobe. The Tohoku Plateau is located in the northern part of the island.
Honshū has a very rugged coastline, with numerous inlets, gulfs and peninsulas. Some of the island’s major port cities include Tokyo, Yokohama, Osaka, and Kobe.
The island of Honshū is located along the Pacific Ring of Fire, and is therefore subject to volcanic activity. Mount Fuji is one of the most famous volcanoes in Japan and is located on the island.
Honshū’s climate varies from region to region, but in general, the island has a temperate climate with four distinct seasons. Northern regions, such as Tohoku, are colder in winter, while southern regions, such as Kanto and Kansai, have milder winters.
Honshū is located along one of the most active faults in the world, the Philippine Fault, and is subject to frequent earthquakes. This seismic activity has affected the geography of the island and has necessitated stringent seismic regulations in the design of structures.
Honshū is home to some of the largest and most populous cities in the world, including Tokyo, Yokohama, Osaka, and Kyoto. These urban centers are economic and cultural hubs not only for Japan but also for the entire East Asian region.
Despite urbanization, Honshū supports a significant agricultural industry, with rice, vegetables, and fruit being grown in rural regions.
These geographical characteristics contribute to making Honshū the most important island from an economic and cultural point of view in Japan.

Historical Notes –
This island has a rich history that extends for millennia and which can be divided into various periods.
1. Jomon Period (approximately 14,000 BC – 300 BC): During this period, people known as the Jomon culture inhabited the island of Honshū. These people were hunter-gatherers and were notable for their decorated pottery.
2. Yayoi Period (about 300 BC – 300 AD): In the Yayoi period, cultural and technological influences from China and Korea arrived in Japan, bringing agriculture and iron production. This period also saw the widespread use of rice.
3. Kofun Period (circa 300-538 AD): During this period, monumental tombs called kofun were built, some of which were immense. This period marks the beginning of state organization in Japan.
4. Asuka Period (circa 538-710 AD): This period saw the introduction of Buddhism and Chinese writing to Japan. The capital was moved to the Asuka region, in what is now Nara Prefecture.
5. Nara Period (710-794 AD): The capital was moved to Nara, and during this period the first Japanese law code, the Taihō-ryō, was written.
6. Heian Period (794-1185 AD): During the Heian era, the capital was moved to Kyoto, and Japan experienced an era of intense culture and literature, including the famous novels “The Tale of Genji” and “The Tale of of the Heike.”
7. Kamakura Period (1185-1333 AD): This period saw the rise of the samurai and the first shogunate, the Kamakura shogunate, which ruled from the northeast of the island of Honshū.
8. Muromachi Period (1333-1573 AD): During the Muromachi period, Japan was divided into several rival kingdoms. Zen culture had a significant influence.
9. Azuchi-Momoyama Period (1573-1603 AD): This period saw the consolidation of power under the Oda Nobunaga clan and Toyotomi Hideyoshi, with the construction of impressive castles such as Osaka Castle.
10. Edo Period (1603-1868 AD): The Edo period was characterized by the centralized rule of the Tokugawa shoguns, also known as the Tokugawa shogunate. During this period, Japan was isolated from the outside world.
11. Meiji Era (1868-1912 AD): The Meiji era marked the restoration of imperial authority and the modernization of Japan, with rapid industrialization and the adoption of Western institutions and technologies.
12. Showa and Heisei Periods (1926-2019 AD): These periods saw Japan go through World War II, post-war reconstruction, and the rise of Japan as a world economic power.
These are just some of the fundamental stages in the history of the island of Honshū. Its history is extremely rich and complex, with many other cultural and political facets that have helped shape it over the centuries.

Ecosystem –
Honshū Island has a diverse ecosystem due to its vast geographic extent and the diversity of climatic and topographical conditions found on Honshū.
Most of Honshū Island is covered in forests, ranging from boreal in the north to subtropical in the south. These forests are inhabited by a wide range of plant and animal species, including deer, bear, fox, wild boar, squirrel and a wide variety of trees, including Japanese pine, Japanese cedar and Japanese beech.
Honshū is crossed by numerous rivers, including the Shinano River, the longest in Japan. These rivers are often surrounded by lush vegetation and provide habitat for many species of fish and waterfowl. There are also numerous lakes on the island, including Lake Biwa, the largest in Japan.
Mountains are a defining feature of Honshū, with the Japanese Alps running through the central part of the island. These mountains provide habitat for unique alpine species and are populated by animals such as chamois and snow macaques. Furthermore, mountain forests are often dense and rich in biodiversity.
The coasts of Honshū overlook the Pacific Ocean to the east and the Sea of Japan to the west. These coastal areas are important for fishing and provide habitat for many marine species, including fish, crabs, seals and seabirds.
Honshū is home to some of Japan’s largest cities, including Tokyo, Osaka, and Kyoto. These urban areas are characterized by a built environment and the presence of urban parks and gardens, which seek to integrate nature into cities.
To preserve Honshū’s rich biodiversity, there are numerous nature reserves and national parks on the island. These parks offer protection to natural habitats and allow hiking enthusiasts and wildlife to thrive.
In general, Honshū’s ecosystem is influenced by the topography, climate, and human activities on the island. Despite population density in urban areas, Japan has made significant efforts towards nature conservation and sustainable management of natural resources, seeking to maintain a balance between human development and environmental protection.

Flora –
The island of Honshū is home to a wide variety of flora due to its diverse geography, from the subtropical climate in the Okinawa area to the subarctic climate in the northern regions of the island. Below are some of the most common and characteristic plant species found on the island of Honshū:
Sakura (cherry blossom): The sakura is the national tree of Japan and is known for its spectacular pink and white flowers that bloom in spring. The abundance of sakura makes this season one of the most important events of the year in Japan, with Japanese people enjoying hanami, or cherry blossom viewing.
Japanese Pine (Matsu): Japanese pines, known as “Matsu”, are very common on the island and are considered a symbol of longevity and strength. Their long, needle-like leaves resist variable weather conditions well.
Bamboo: Bamboo is another iconic plant of Japan and is used in a variety of applications, from construction to zen gardens. Bamboo grows abundantly in many parts of Honshū.
Japanese Cedar (Sugi): Japanese cedars, known as “Sugi,” are majestic trees often found in the island’s mountain forests. Sugi wood is widely used for the construction of traditional temples and shrines.
Japanese Azalea: These plants produce vibrant flowers of various shades of pink, red and white. Japanese azaleas are often grown in Japanese gardens for their ornamental beauty.
Rhododendron: Rhododendrons are common in the mountainous regions of the island and produce showy flowers of various colors.
Cherry Fruit (Sakuranbo): In addition to ornamental sakura, Honshū is also known for growing cherry fruit, known as “Sakuranbo” in Japanese. Japanese cherries are sweet and delicious.
Paddy (bamboo grass): This herbaceous plant grows abundantly in many parts of the island and is often used for ornamental purposes in traditional Japanese gardens.
Japanese Bamboo (Madake): This bamboo species is one of the largest in the world and is often used to make handcrafted items such as pots and baskets.
Japanese beech (Buna): This tree is common in mountain forests and has broad, deciduous leaves. Its wood is used for a variety of purposes, including the production of furniture and traditional musical instruments.
Honshū Island is home to a diverse flora thanks to its many geographic regions and climates. Vegetation varies greatly from north to south and east to west, creating a rich range of habitats for plants.

Fauna –
Honshū Island is known for its rich biodiversity. There are many unique and interesting wildlife species here. Below are some of the most iconic and important species found on the island of Honshū:
Sika deer (Cervus nippon): This deer is common in many parts of Honshū Island and is known for its palm-shaped antlers.
Japanese macaca monkey (Macaca fuscata): This monkey, known as the “Japanese macaca” or “Honshū macaca”, is endemic to the island of Honshū and is often seen in parks and mountainous areas.
Japanese badger (Meles anakuma): This animal is a species of badger endemic to Japan and is known for its ability to dig burrows and its distinctive appearance.
Sea Eagles (Haliaeetus spp.): Sea eagles, such as the Steller’s eagle, are majestic birds of prey found along the coasts of Honshū Island.
Japanese fox (Vulpes vulpes japonica): This subspecies of red fox is endemic to Japan and is known for its reddish-gray color and bushy tail.
Giant newt (Andrias japonicus): This amphibian is also known as the Japanese giant salamander and is the largest amphibian in the world. It can reach impressive dimensions.
Birds: Honshū Island is home to a wide range of birds, including the great blue heron, gray heron, great egret, common kingfisher and green pheasant.
Freshwater Fish: Honshū’s rivers and lakes are rich in freshwater fish, including rainbow trout, Japanese perch, and goby.
Insects and other invertebrates: The island is rich in insects such as the Japanese cicada and the praying mantis. Furthermore, there are many species of aquatic insects in rivers and lakes.
Honshū Reptile (Elaphe climacophora): This snake is native to Honshū and is known for its distinctive banded coloration.
This list represents only a small part of the fauna present on the island of Honshū. The island is home to many other animal species, some of which are endemic and found nowhere else in the world. The island’s biodiversity is precious and must be preserved and protected.

Environmental Protection Actions –
Honshū Island has a rich history of environmental conservation efforts due to its ecological importance and population density. Here are some of the environmental protection actions on the island of Honshū:
National Parks and Nature Reserves: Honshū Island is home to numerous national parks and nature reserves, such as Chūbu-Sangaku National Park, Bandai-Asahi National Park, and Oze National Park. These parks are designed to preserve biodiversity and natural habitats.
Aquatic Resource Management: Japan, and Honshū in particular, has active water resource management to ensure sustainable water use. This includes the protection of rivers and lakes, as well as measures to mitigate water pollution.
Forest Enhancement Programs: Honshū Island is covered in forests that are of crucial importance for environmental conservation. The Japanese government has programs for sustainable forest management and forest fire prevention.
Endangered Species Protection: Honshū is home to many endangered species of plants and animals. Conservationists and government agencies work to protect these species by creating reserves and promoting sustainable agricultural practices.
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: Japan has promoted energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy to reduce environmental impact and mitigate climate change.
Environmental Management Technologies: Honshū Island is also a center of technological innovation for environmental management, with companies and research institutes developing technologies for monitoring and reducing pollution.
Environmental Education: Environmental education is a key component of environmental protection actions. Local schools and organizations promote environmental awareness and teach sustainable practices.
Environmental Monitoring: Regular environmental monitoring activities are conducted to assess the state of ecosystems, air and water quality and other environmental indicators. This data is used to make informed decisions.
Sustainable Urban Planning: Cities on Honshū, such as Tokyo and Osaka, seek to adopt sustainable urban planning practices, including improving public transportation, reducing waste, and creating green spaces in urban areas.
Preparedness for Natural Disasters: Honshū Island is subject to earthquakes, typhoons and other natural disasters. Preparedness and risk reduction efforts are essential to protect the environment and the population.
These actions are just some of the many ongoing environmental conservation initiatives on the island of Honshū and reflect Japan’s commitment to protecting its rich biodiversity and mitigating the impacts of climate change.

Guido Bissanti

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