A wetland is a type of terrestrial or aquatic ecosystem in which water is the predominant feature.
According to the International Ramsar Convention, “wetlands” means «… swamps and marshes, peat bogs or reservoirs, natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is stagnant or flowing, fresh, brackish, or salt water, including expanses of sea water whose depth, during low tide, does not exceed six metres.” Sites that possess these characteristics and which are of international importance, especially as a habitat for water birds, can be included in the “list of wetlands of international importance” approved by the convention itself.
Furthermore, the following habitats can be considered wetlands: lakes, peat bogs, rivers and their mouths, ponds, lagoons, fishing ponds, salt marshes, coasts with coastal marine waters. And also, among the artificial works, the expansion tanks, the retention reservoirs, the aggregate quarries for river activity, the canals, the salt pans and the reclaimed tanks.
To date, 172 countries have signed the Convention and more than 2,400 Ramsar sites have been designated for a total area of more than 250 million hectares.
There are currently 51 Ramsar sites identified in Italy for a total area of 60,052 hectares.
A wetland is a type of terrestrial or aquatic ecosystem in which water is the predominant feature. These areas are characterized by the presence of water, which can be permanent or seasonal, and by a series of unique hydrological, chemical and biological conditions. Wetlands can take many different forms, including swamps, swamps, lakes, ponds, rivers, river deltas, and even coastal areas such as mangroves and brackish wetlands.
Wetlands play an extremely important ecological role in the environment, providing habitat for a wide range of plant and animal species. They are also crucial for biodiversity conservation, water purification, flood control, climate change mitigation and human recreation. Furthermore, wetlands play a key role in the water cycle, as they act as natural water reservoirs.
However, wetlands are often threatened by habitat loss due to urbanization, intensive agriculture, river canalization and other human activities. Many organizations and governments actively work towards the conservation and sustainable management of wetlands to preserve their ecological importance and benefits to the environment and society.