Fulvic acids are weak acids produced by the degradation and decay of organic matter present in the soil. In fulvic acids, the fractions of the humic substance soluble at any pH are included.
Fulvic acids differ from humic acids due to their lower molecular loss, less complex molecular structure, lower aromatic ring content, and greater saturation of oxygen and acid groups, especially hydroxyls and carboxyls. Moreover, the fulvic acids, unlike humic acids, are soluble in water.
In fact fulvic acid is the final product of the aerobic decomposition of all living matter; it is extremely bio-active, rapidly passing into plant cells. In plants, the high levels of fulvic acid allow a more effective photosynthesis and produce elaborates, from nutrients, more effectively within the leaf.
Furthermore, fulvic acid clasps and binds mineral fragments into a bio-available form and is one of the most effective vitamin transporters in the cell.
Fulvic acid has the extraordinary ability to change, alter, combine or interact with virtually all other organic and inorganic substances.
Humic acid has a very high molecular weight and inhibits the leaching of nutrients from the soil. Its presence in the soil positively interferes with the CSC (cation exchange capacity) making the fertilizations more efficient and decreasing the leaching effect, especially in sandy soils.
The fulvic acid molecule (a varied and complex series of molecules) is an important promoter of health, growth and development in all higher organisms, including humans, and is the subject of a considerable amount of research in progress.
In fact, according to some studies, fulvic acids would seem to be one of the most powerful antioxidants known, with free radicals contrasting action. Another important feature of these substances is their detoxifying power, especially as regards the presence of heavy metals in the body. But little is known about the mechanism of action and the possible collateral effects it may cause.
Like all humic substances, not being discrete chemical entities, they can not be represented by structural formulas.