Chlorogenic acid

Chlorogenic acid

Chlorogenic acid, whose term in the official IUPAC nomenclature is: acid (1S, 3R, 4R, 5R) -3 – {[(2E) -3- (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) prop-2-enoyl] oxy} -1,4,5-trihydroxycyclohexan-1-carboxylic acid is a naturally occurring organic acid in some plants.
It is found in a bamboo plant (Phyllostachys edulis (Carrière) J.Houz., 1906) as well as in many other plants, such as in the shoots of common heather (Calluna vulgaris L., Hull, 1808).
Chlorogenic acid has a brute or molecular formula: C16H18O9 and, chemically, the ester obtained from the combination of caffeic acid with (L) -quinic acid.
Chlorogenic acid, despite the presence of the term “chlorine” of the name, does not contain chlorine but its name derives from the Greek χλωρός (kloros, light green) and -γένος (genos, suffix meaning “to give rise to”), relative to the green color generated by oxidation products.
Chlorogenic acid isomers include the caffeylquinic ester at other hydroxyl sites on the quinic acid ring: 4-O-caffeylquinic acid (cryptochlorogenic acid or 4-CQA) and 5-O-caffeylquinic acid (neochlorogenic or 5- acid) CQA). The epimer in position 1 has not yet been reported.
The biosynthetic precursor of chlorogenic acid is 4-cumaroyl-CoA, containing a single hydroxyl group on the aryl ring, which in turn is produced from cinnamic acid. The hydroxylation of the coumaryl ester, i.e. the installation of the second hydroxy group, is catalyzed by an enzyme of the cytochrome P450.

Chlorogenic acid has been found in the leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa as well as the related compounds cryptochlorogenic acid and neochlorogenic acid. Chlorogenic acid isomers are found in potatoes. Chlorogenic acid is also present in the pulp of aubergines, peaches, plums and in coffee beans.
This substance is biologically active and plays several important and therapeutic roles as an antioxidant, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, neuroprotective, antiobesity, antiviral, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, free radical scavenger and central nervous system stimulator.
Chlorogenic acid has been studied as a possible chemical sensitizer involved in respiratory allergy to certain plant materials. Also taken as a dietary supplement or in coffee, chlorogenic acid slightly reduces blood pressure.

Warning: The information shown is not medical advice and may not be accurate. The contents are for illustrative purposes only and do not replace medical advice.

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