Phytodepuration plants

Phytodepuration plants

Phytodepuration is a natural purification system of natural waters that can be applied, with the necessary technical and design specifications, also for waste water, both domestic, agricultural and sometimes industrial.
Phyto-purification, in practice, reproduces the principle of self-purification typical of aquatic environments and wetlands.
In order to apply phytodepuration, in addition to design and application needs, plants are used which, through their radical, physiological and functional system, are able to abate and metabolize the substances contained in suspension or in solution in waste water. Specifically, aquatic plants, such as marsh plants, submerged plants and water lilies have the power to purify water in a natural way, thanks to the symbiosis that is created between these plants and the aerobic bacteria that live in their roots. So these plants capture oxygen from the atmosphere and transport it to the roots of the plant. Then oxygen is released into the substrate around the roots, where aerobic bacteria live, which are capable of degrading pollutants and organic matter into inorganic substances available for plants.
At the same time, plants directly absorb part of the organic substances dissolved in water and produced by bacteria; process that allows you to obtain good quality water, purified from organic waste substances, pathogenic bacteria, viruses and heavy metals.
In general, the plants most used in this type of systems are those called aquatic macrophytes (higher plants).
In detail, the essence most used throughout Europe is Phragmites australis, or swamp straw, for its role as an oxygen pump; in fact, this plant is an elophyte that has the characteristic of transporting atmospheric oxygen deep into the filling medium thanks to its long rhizomes, creating oxidized micro areas that are colonized by aerobic bacteria; activity that is very important in submerged flow systems.
In surface flow systems, however, all species of aquatic macrophytes that well tolerate high trophic levels and pollution (Carex spp., Scirpus spp., Shoenoplectus spp., Caltha palustris, Alisma plantago-aquatica, Lythrum salicaria, can be used. Ceratophyllum demersum, Myriophyllum spicatum, etc.)
Plants for phytodepuration are used in ornamental ponds, in lakes for koi carp, in biopiscine and in phytodepuration plants.
Below, beyond the technical specifications for phytodepuration, which refer to design concepts, we mention a list of marsh plants aimed at different technical solutions.
In this case the best marsh plants for submerged flow phytodepuration plants with gravel substrate and water level plant collar are:

Carex pseudocyperus L. – Cyperus sedge
Carex riparia Curtis, 1783 – Greater pond sedge
Glyceria maxima – Great manna grass
Glyceria maxima (Hartm.) Holmb., 1919 – Glyceria maxima variegata
Iris pseudacorus L. – Yellow flag
Juncus effusus L. – Common rush
Juncus inflexus L. – Tenacious rush
Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. – Marsh straw
Schoenoplectus lacustris (L.) Palla 1888 – Lakeshore bulrush
Sparganium erectum L., 1753 – simplestem bur-reed or branched bur-reed

As for the best marsh plants for surface flow phyto-purification plants with soil substrate and plant collar immersed in water, we mention:

Carex riparia Curtis, 1783 – Greater pond sedge
Glyceria maxima – Great manna grass
Glyceria maxima (Hartm.) Holmb., 1919 – Glyceria maxima variegata
Iris pseudacorus L. – Yellow flag
Mentha aquatica L., 1753 – Water Mint
Mentha cervina L. var. alba – Mentha cervina alba
Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. – Marsh straw
Pontederia cordata L. – Pickerelweed
Pontederia cordata L. var alba – White Pickerel Weed
Schoenoplectus lacustris (L.) Palla 1888 – Lakeshore bulrush
Sparganium erectum L., 1753 – simplestem bur-reed or branched bur-reed
Stachys palustris (L.) L., 1753 – Marsh Woundwort
Typha latifolia L. – Broadleaf cattail

The best marsh plants for submerged flow phytodepuration plants with dry soil substrate and with lower water level (i.e. marsh plants that can tolerate the dry more) are:

Carex pseudocyperus L. – Cyperus sedge
Glyceria maxima – Great manna grass
Glyceria maxima (Hartm.) Holmb., 1919 – Glyceria maxima variegata
Houttuynia cordata Thunb. – Fish mint
Iris savannarum Small – Prairie iris –
Iris pseudacorus L. – Yellow flag
Juncus effusus L. – Common rush
Juncus inflexus L. – Tenacious rush
Scirpus sylvaticus Linnaeus, 1753 – Wood clubrush

The best marsh plants for floating phytodepuration (marsh plants inserted on floating rafts), etc. I’m:

Carex pseudocyperus L. – Cyperus sedge
Carex riparia Curtis, 1783 – Greater pond sedge
Glyceria maxima – Great manna grass
Glyceria maxima (Hartm.) Holmb., 1919 – Glyceria maxima variegata
Iris pseudacorus L. – Yellow flag
Juncus effusus L. – Common rush
Juncus inflexus L. – Tenacious rush
Mentha aquatica L., 1753 – Water Mint
Mentha cervina L. var. alba – Mentha cervina alba
Sparganium erectum L., 1753 – simplestem bur-reed or branched bur-reed

The best marsh plants for ponds and bio pools are:

Acorus calamus L., 1753 – Sweet flag
Butomus umbellatus L., 1753 – Flowering rush
Eleocharis palustris (L.) Roem. & Schult. – Common Spike-Rush
Carex pseudocyperus L. – Cyperus sedge
Carex riparia Curtis, 1783 – Greater pond sedge
Cyperus longus L. – Galingale
Glyceria maxima – Great manna grass
Glyceria maxima (Hartm.) Holmb., 1919 – Glyceria maxima variegata
Hippuris vulgaris L. – Mare’s-tail
Iris savannarum Small – Prairie iris –
Iris pseudacorus L. – Yellow flag
Juncus effusus L. – Common rush
Juncus inflexus L. – Tenacious rush
Justicia americana L. – American water-willow
Mentha aquatica L., 1753 – Water Mint
Mentha cervina L. var. alba – Mentha cervina alba
Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc., 1973 – Parrot’s-feather
Pontederia cordata L. – Pickerelweed
Pontederia cordata L. var alba – White Pickerel Weed
Sagittaria platyphylla (Engelm.) J.G. Sm. – Sagittaria platyphylla
Sagittaria sagittifolia L. – Arrow Head
Schoenoplectiella mucronata (L.) J. Jung & H.K. Choi – Bog bulrush
Schoenoplectus lacustris (L.) Palla 1888 – Lakeshore bulrush
Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani (C.C. Gmel.) Palla – Softstem bulrush
Stachys palustris (L.) L., 1753 – Marsh Woundwort
Sparganium erectum L., 1753 – simplestem bur-reed or branched bur-reed
Thalia dealbata Fraser ex Roscoe – Powdery alligator-flag

And finally the best submerged plants for ponds and bio pools are:

Ceratophyllum demersum L., 1753 – Hornwort
Elodea canadensis Michx. – Canadian Pondweed
Myriophyllum spicatum L. – Eurasian watermilfoil

Guido Bissanti





One thought on “Phytodepuration plants

  • Monday May 10th, 2021 at 03:24 AM
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    Ottimo articolo, molto pratico.

    Reply

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