A biome is a large portion of the earth’s biosphere, which is identified and classified according to the characteristics of the vegetation and fauna present.
These characteristics will obviously be influenced by climatic, environmental, latitude, altitude, etc.
Within the biome, therefore, relationships and exchanges will be established between the different species of living organisms, both multicellular and unicellular, which will characterize the biome.
Biomes can be distinguished in marine, freshwater and land biomes.
The study of a biome focuses on the characteristics of vegetation, on their relationships, on the biocenosis between the fauna and flora populations and on the links between them.
Terrestrial biomes are often identified through the concept of climax vegetation, therefore with plant communities that have reached a high degree of adaptation and balance with the natural environment that hosts and supports them.
Unlike ecozones, biomes are not defined based on genetic or taxonomic similarities between the organisms that live there.
In terms of landscape ecology, the biomes correspond, with the necessary adjustments, to the continental landscapes, that is to those landscapes that characterize vast zones in the various continents.
Within each biome, various ecoregions are then identified.