Rosa canina

Rosa canina

The wild rose or common rose (Rosa canina L., 1753) is a species of wild rose of the Rosaceae family.

Systematics –
From a systematic point of view it belongs to the Domain Eukaryota, Kingdom Plantae, Subarrange Tracheobionta, Superdivisione Spermatophyta, Magnoliophyta Division, Magnoliopsida Class, Sottoclasse Rosidae, Rosales Order, Family Rosaceae, Subfamily Rosoideae and therefore to the Rosa Genus and the R. Canina Species.

Etymology –
The term Rosa comes from the Latin rósa rosa, in turn of Greek derivation, ῥόδον rhódon, which means the queen of flowers. The specific canine epithet, as also reported by Pliny, because in ancient times it was believed that the roots of rosehip cured the effects of the bites of rabid dogs.

Geographic Distribution and Habitat –
The Rosehip is widespread in a large area in the temperate areas of the Old World, including: North Africa and the Canary Islands and Madeira, Western Asia (Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Lebanon, Syria), the Caucasus region and Central Asia (Tajikistan), the Indian sub-continent and all of Europe, from the Mediterranean to Scandinavia. It was introduced and naturalized also in North America and in Australia and New Zealand; it is the most common wild rose species in Italy.
Its natural habitat is that of thickets of beech, fir, pine and deciduous oaks, shrubs and hedges, up to an altitude of 1900 m in deep, silty and moderately arid soils. It is a pioneer species that resists the cold and also tolerates the heat.

Description –
The Rosa canina is a shrub with a bushy habit or perennial tree, which can reach a height of 3-4 meters. It has a stem of greenish color with branches erected in the lower part, falling in the upper part, equipped with spines (thorns) that also cover the branches. The leaves are imparipinnate with 5-7 leaflets, toothed, oval, glabrous and elongated.
The flowers have pale pink pastel colors, with five petals and numerous stamens. The fruits are hairy acheni with hard pericarp, enclosed in a false oval and red fruit, called cinorrodonto.

Cultivation –
The Rosa canina is a species of easy cultivation on the condition that some precautions and indications are respected. It prefers sunny or semi-gloomy places, on any type of soil as long as it is well drained and fertile. As a rustic plant it is satisfied with rainwater, requiring irrigation only after planting and in the first year and every 20-30 days in periods of prolonged drought. For its balanced growth, at the end of winter a light pruning should be carried out by shortening the branches of the previous year by a third of the length. In addition, every 3 years old branches must be pruned in order to favor the emission of new ones. The dog rose reproduces by seed or by cutting. For its cultivation technique, the following sheet can be consulted.

Uses and Traditions –
Rosehip is widely used for its high content of vitamin C and for its bioflavonoid content (phytoestrogens.) The active ingredients (in addition to vitamin C) are: tannins, organic acids, pectins, carotenoids and polyphenols that are used by industries pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics, the dried and chopped fruits are used in herbal medicine for the preparation of infusions and decoctions.It is indicated as an intestinal astringent, antidiarrheal, vasoprotective and anti-inflammatory, it is also recommended in cases of debilitation. for colds, influences and earaches, but it is also useful as an anti-allergic, it also stimulates diuresis and is an excellent astringent, which is why rosehip is a medicinal and medicinal plant.
The seeds are used for the preparation of pesticides and the petals of the flowers for rosé honey. Its decoction is used in cosmetics for delicate and reddened skin.
Rosehip can be used successfully to create interpoderal or defensive hedges, almost impenetrable, due to the numerous robust thorns that it has along all branches. The rose hip is a mellifera plant, the flowers are very stuffed by bees, but producing unifloral honey is very difficult due to its sporadic presence on the territory.
The cinorrodontis, when they are ripe and of a beautiful bright red, deprived of internal seeds, are used to prepare jams. To prepare herbal teas, the fruits are deprived of seeds and dried in the shade. Even the flowers and leaves are used in the pharmacopoeia.

Preparation Mode –
With the fresh fruits of the dog rose, they prepare excellent jams and make a jam from the rose petals, like the vartanush.Always with the fruit you can prepare a liqueur called gratacül, from the dialect name gratacü of the berries in northern Italy (Liguria , Lombardy, Emilia-Romagna).
Both berries and dried sprouts are used to prepare a delicious herbal tea with an aroma and a citrus flavor. It is an excellent natural remedy against flu, cold and cough. To obtain it you must infuse 1 tablespoon of dried berries into boiling water (which can also be found in herbal medicine.) The water must not yet have reached the boiling point, after which the fire is immediately extinguished and left in infusion for 10 minutes.It is filtered and can be sweetened with sugar or honey.
Blending also the fresh cinorrodonti, after having cleaned, cut and emptied of the hair and internal filaments, you get an effective mask with a toning, smoothing and lightening action. This mask should be applied to the clean face, avoiding the contours of the eyes and leaving the baby food for 10-15 minutes; then rinse with warm water.

Guido Bissanti

Sources
– Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
– Treben M., 2000. Health from the Pharmacy of the Lord, Advice and experience with medicinal herbs, Ennsthaler Publisher
– Pignatti S., 1982. Flora of Italy, Edagricole, Bologna.
– Conti F., Abbate G., Alessandrini A., Blasi C. (edited by), 2005. An annotated checklist of the Italian vascular flora, Palombi Editore.

Attention: Pharmaceutical applications and alimurgical uses are indicated for informational purposes only, they do not in any way represent a medical prescription; there is therefore no liability for their use for curative, aesthetic or food purposes.



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