Origanum majorana

Origanum majorana

Majoran (Origanum majorana L., 1753) is a perennial plant of the Lamiaceae family. Its a synonym is Majorana hortensis.

Systematic –
The Maggiorana belongs to the Eukaryota Domain, the Kingdom Plantae, the Tracheobionta Subordination, the Spermatophyta Superdivision, the Magnoliophyta Division, the Magnoliopsida Class, the Asteridae Subclass, the Lamiales Order, the Lamiaceae Family, the Mentheae Tribes, and then the Origenum Genus and the O. Majorana Species.

Etymology –
It was the botanist Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (Aix-en-Provence, June 5, 1656 – Paris, December 28, 1708) to name these plants. In fact, the etymology of the name dates back to 2000 years earlier with the Greeks, perhaps by Teofrasto (371 BC – Athens, 287 BC) an ancient Greek philosopher and botanist, a disciple of Aristotle, author of two extensive botanical treatises that first Used this name for an aromatic herb). Origanum is made up of two words “òros” and “ganáo” (= I’m happy) that together could allude to a concept of “mountain delight” or even “beauty, brightness, ornament, mountain joy”. [4] The specific name (majorana) is more uncertain, and it goes back to the Latin word “amaracus” or also to the Greek word “amàracos” whose meanings might be “having smell”; Or from the medieval Latin “maiorane” with which the plant of this voice (Majorana hortensis or commonly marjoram) was indicated.
The scientific name of the species was defined by Linneo (1707-1778), also known as the biologist and writer of Sweden, considered the father of the modern scientific classification of living organisms, in the publication “Species Plantarum – 2: 590. 1753” of 1753 .

Geographic Distribution and Habitat –
The origins of the Origanum majorana are the lands of North Africa and West Asia; In countries where spontaneous growth grows, marjoram is perennial, while elsewhere, where climatic conditions are stricter, it is generally cultivated as annual or biennial.
The preferred habitat is (besides the vegetable gardens) the ungulates and the edges of the streets. The preferred substrate is calcareous but also siliceous with neutral pH, average nutritional values ​​of the soil that must be dry.
The altitudinal distribution sees this plant up to about 2000 m s.l.m .; They therefore follow the following vegetation plans: hilly, mountainous and partly subalpine (in addition to the plan – sea level).

Description –
Origanum majorana is a herbaceous plant perennial lignified in the basal portion, very aromatic. It has a largely branched, up to 50 cm high stem, with square section, initially tomentose and green ash, then glabrous with oblique rhizome.
The leaves are opposite, with dull or rounded base, oblong ovals (generally 5-10 x 8-20 mm), narrowing to the base in the short petiole and rounded up; The margin is full, the surface of the younger leaves is whitish by the presence of dense hair.
The marjoram has sessile flowers with tubular and bilabian corolla (upper or lower lip, the lower one divided into three sharp lobes) with white-rose petals or sometimes purplish. The flowers are clustered in dense racemic racemic glomeruli at the top, characterized by round, tomentose and glandular bratheas, stamines with divergent filaments and often protruding anthers on the sides; Goblet with 5 teeth, tubular weakly zygomorphic (in the shape of an open cone on one side).
The fruit is a microbase (tetrachinum enclosed in the bottom of the persistent chalice) with 0.9-1.3 x 0.7-0.8 mm mericars, elliptic, with apex, yellowish color then dark brown.

Cultivation –
For the cultivation technique, see the following sheet.

Uses and Traditions –
The used parts of the marjoram are the flowered summits, harvested from July to September, cut to 10-15 cm. From the ground, avoiding the lignificated basal portion. They gather in bunches and hang in a dry place for drying. They are stored in glass or porcelain containers.
Among the main constituents we mention: from 0.7 to 3% of essential oil consisting of: terpinen-4-ol, ά-terpineol, 4-thiol, linalolo; Rosemary acid, caffeic acid; 4.5% tannin; Ursolic and oleanolic acid; Year. A, ascorbic acid.
The main activities that are recognized at Origanum majorana are for the antiseptic activity of essential oil. The presence of tannins has aromatic, eupeptic and antispasmodic action of the gastro-enteric tube; Blocks intestinal tract fermentations, counteracting meteorism and painful contractions. It has a tonic action that, combined with antispasmodic and digestive properties, is useful in treating depressive and anxious states of migraine and headache. The respiratory system performs a balmy and expectorant action. It also has a mild diuretic action.
Marjoram can be used for internal use: the infusion is indicated in difficult digestion, abdominal pain, neuralgia, coughing and colds. Use as a spice in the kitchen, as well as make a delicate aroma than the oranges, contributes to the digestive processes.
For topical use, suffumuses are effective in case of colds and the use of infusion as a mouthwash against inflammation of the throat. You can also use the infusion for clutches in case of rheumatic neuralgia and pain.
Among the possible toxic effects, the fresh plant may cause skin and eye irritation in susceptible individuals. Essential oil, in high doses, can cause hematuria.
Among the curiosities it is worth mentioning is the infused sweet honey that, according to Valnet, falls into the arsenal of remedies useful to singers to preserve the voice. Marjoram is used in the preparation of liqueurs, in the canning industry and in food, as well as in cosmetics as a fragrance in soaps, detergents, creams, lotions and perfumes.
Among the most popular and popular uses remember that marjoram is widely used as a seasoning in the Riviera and Mediterranean cuisine; In some regions the leaves are put in bags to perfume the lingerie.
In the food field, marjoram is one of the most used aromatic herbs throughout Europe. It is suitable for all those foods where a strong and at the same time quite sweet aroma needs to be obtained. However, its scent is affected by heat, then it must be added to raw or cooked. It is the ideal condiment for pizzas, mixed salads, raw sauces, vinegars and aromatic oils.
The Marjoram era was known since classical times, it was considered one of the symbols of happiness, and we find it widely used in cooking both in the Romans and in the following centuries.
An old treatise thus speaks to him: “Is it perhaps because of the pleasure of his smell that the marjoram is plant so grateful to women that there is almost nothing that does not plant and care diligently in the ornamental plants or pots … Distillate juice of the marjoram, introduced into the ear in small quantities, eliminates the pains, as well as the annoying buzz and goodness for deafness; Aspirated for the nose removes the phlegmatic mood from the head, purifies and comforts the brain. ”
With an eye to history, we see that the marigold found its origin in the ancient peoples where the traditions tied it to the kingdom of the gods. This plant was said to be under the dominion of Mercury and dear to Aphrodite, the goddess of love, who used it to soothe the wounds of Aeneas. Hippocrates also named her by citing that she prescribed it for its heating effect. In the Roman people, the plant was used in the wine that was flavored. The women of ancient Greece, on the other hand, had eyebrows and hair with the essential oil added to the smells of perfumes. During the Middle Ages, the magical virtues were attributed to the plant: it was used to divert evil spirits and witches. Herbal tea was given to children to encourage the development of language.
Throughout history, marjoram was identified as a plant with beneficial properties for the entire organism. It is no coincidence that it is still very much applied in medicine for its beneficial effects.

Methods of Preparation –
We start from the methods to preserve the marjoram.
The marjoram can be stored by drying or can be kept fresh by making specially prepared in a freezer or with oil and salt. Those who want to retain the flavor of the marjoram can use it to aromatize the oil.
In the kitchen the marjoram can be used fresh or dried: it is the ideal condiment for flavoring pizzas, dumplings, fillings, meatballs, salty pies, mushrooms, legumes, sauces, mixed salads or tomatoes, cheeses, omelettes, crustaceans … Also for aromatic vinegar and oil. Used freshly, it is particularly suitable for enriching fish dishes: try to finely chop it and flavor it with lemon juice.
Among the many recipes with the use of the marjoram, it is worth mentioning, for its historical and literary value, a particular, omitted by Hemingway that has left us not only the unforgettable pages of his novels, but also this recipe, to hear The writer, one of his favorites.
“Put half a pound of cod in the water. After half an hour take it off and let it bathe all night. Then, for one hour, in running water.
In a frying pan, where you have heated two tablespoons of olive oil, put a sliced ​​onion, two chopped garlic cloves, two sliced ​​tomatoes, one pepper idem, two laurel leaves, plenty of red pepper, half Sugar spoon, fennel seeds, oregano and marjoram, black pepper, half a glass of white wine.
Cook for half an hour, then add the cod and cook for another twenty minutes.
Add two loaves of cut mackerel, and mushrooms.
Cook for another ten minutes. Serve with bean seasoning “.
For marijuana therapeutic use has remarkable applications.
In periods of tension the marjorama supports the nervous system without overloading it and solves the somatization of stress. Ask for essential herbal oil. Dried herb is in herbalist; Fresh, from the greengrocer.
With the Origanum majorana you can prepare a soothing Infusion. If you feel nervous and tired, put a teaspoon of dried marjoram in a cup of boiling water, let it rest for 8-10 minutes, filter and drink. The ideal dose is two to three cups a day.
Another use with the consequent preparation of marjoram is that of the essential anti-insomnia oil. Take 4-6 drops of sugar over an hour before you lay down.
The aroma of marjoram essential oil greatly attracts the headache.
When you are under pressure, headache is one of the most common ailments. The marjoram, thanks to its relaxing effect, is able to solve the problem, thus increasing levels of attention and concentration. Ideal is a massage at the center of the forehead with a drop of essential oil. When the headache is accompanied by sinusitis or cold, we recommend the heat with the still hot infusion: aspirate the aroma of the grass for 20 minutes, covering your head with a towel.
Against stress, the marjoram is useful when generating annoying muscular contractures or feeling worse than preexisting rheumatic pains. Clutches or marble baths, as well as relaxing, develop a toning and revitalizing effect.
For anti-rhythmic clutches, proceed as follows: Melt 10-20 drops of marjoram essential oil in 100 ml of alcohol and massage the preparation on the sore joints.
Finally, an interesting remedy is that of anti-contraction baths. Add 10 drops of essence to the bath water, or the infusion (obtained with two handfuls of grass in one liter of water). Immerse yourself for at least 10 minutes, massaging your muscles.

Guido Bissanti

Sources
– Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
– Treben M., 2000. The Health from the Pharmacy of the Lord, tips and experiences with medicinal herbs, Ennsthaler Publisher
– Pignatti S., 1982. Flora of Italy, Edagricole, Bologna.
– Conti F., Abbate G., Alessandrini A., Blasi C. (ed), 2005. An annotated checklist of the Italian vascular flora, Palombi Editore.

Please note: Pharmaceutical applications and alimurgici uses are indicated for information purposes only, do not represent in any way a medical prescription; it accepts no liability on their use for therapeutic purposes, cosmetic or food.




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