Cladonia pyxidata

Cladonia pyxidata

Cladonia pyxidata (Cladonia pyxidata (L.) Hoffm. 1796) is a lichen belonging to the Cladoniaceae family.

Systematics –
From the systematic point of view it belongs to the Eukaryota Domain, Fungi Kingdom, Ascomycota Division, Lecanoromycetes Class, Lecanorales Order, Cladoniaceae Family and therefore to the Cladonia Genus, to the Cladonia Subgenus and to the C. pyxidata Species.
The terms are synonymous:
– Cladonia chlorophaea auct .;
– Cladonia monomorpha Aptroot, Sipman & Herk;
– Cladonia neglecta (Flörke) Spreng .;
– Cladonia pyxidata ssp. chlorophaea (Sommerf.) V.Wirth;
– Cladonia pyxidata v. chlorophaea (Sommerf.) Flörke.
The following forms, subspecies and varieties of this subspecies are currently recognized:
– Cladonia pyxidata [var.] Pterygota Flörke .;
– Cladonia pyxidata [var.] Pyxidata (L.) Hoffm. (1796);
– Cladonia pyxidata [var.] Verticillata Hoffm .;
– Cladonia pyxidata f. botryosa Delise .;
– Cladonia pyxidata f. carneopallida (Ach.) Harm. (1896);
– Cladonia pyxidata f. centralis Flot .;
– Cladonia pyxidata f. cervina Nyl. (1858);
– Cladonia pyxidata f. conistea (Delise) Delise, (= Cladonia humilis var. humilis);
– Cladonia pyxidata f. torn Doppelb. (1950);
– Cladonia pyxidata f. expansa Anders (1936);
– Cladonia pyxidata f. intermediate Sandst. (1910);
– Cladonia pyxidata f. lophyra Ach .;
– Cladonia pyxidata f. lophyroides Vain. ex Szatala (1938);
– Cladonia pyxidata f. macra (Flörke) Müll. Arg .;
– Cladonia pyxidata f. myriocarpa Mudd .;
– Cladonia pyxidata f. pachyphyllina (Wallr.) Vain. (1927);
– Cladonia pyxidata f. phyllophora Mudd .;
– Cladonia pyxidata f. pocillum (Ach.) Flot .;
– Cladonia pyxidata f. pterygota (Flörke) Sandst. (1927);
– Cladonia pyxidata f. pyxidata (L.) Hoffm. (1796);
– Cladonia pyxidata f. simplex (Ach.) Harm .;
– Cladonia pyxidata f. staphylea (Ach.) Harm .;
– Cladonia pyxidata f. syntheta (Ach.) Harm. (1927);
– Cladonia pyxidata subsp. chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) V. Wirth (1994), (= Cladonia chlorophaea);
– Cladonia pyxidata subsp. grayi (G. Merr. ex Sandst.) V. Wirth (1994), (= Cladonia grayi);
– Cladonia pyxidata subsp. pocillum (Ach.) Å.E. Dahl (1950), (= Cladonia pocillum);
– Cladonia pyxidata subsp. pyxidata (L.) Hoffm. (1796);
– Cladonia pyxidata, apothecia;
– Cladonia pyxidata subvar. lepidophora Flörke .;
– Cladonia pyxidata subvar. pyxidata (L.) Hoffm. (1796);
– Cladonia pyxidata tax.vag. pyxidata (L.) Hoffm. (1796);
– Cladonia pyxidata tax.vag. verticilliata Hoffm., (= Cladonia cervicornis subsp. verticillata);
– Cladonia pyxidata var. baccifera Räsänen (1944);
– Cladonia pyxidata var. chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Flörke, (= Cladonia chlorophaea);
– Cladonia pyxidata var. chlorophaea f. staphylea (Ach.) Harm .;
– Cladonia pyxidata var. rib Flörke (1828);
– Cladonia pyxidata var. flavida Vain .;
– Cladonia pyxidata var. marginalis F. Wilson (1887);
– Cladonia pyxidata var. neglecta (Flörke) A. Massal. (1855);
– Cladonia pyxidata var. pocillum (Ach.) Flot. (1927), (= Cladonia pocillum);
– Cladonia pyxidata var. pyxidata (L.) Hoffm. (1796);
– Cladonia pyxidata var. pyxidata f. lophyra (Ach.) Körb ..

Etymology –
The term Cladonia comes from the Greek kladṓn, a variant of kládos ‘branch’, for the divisions of the thallus.
The specific epithet pyxidata comes from the Greek πυξίς pyxís jar, pyx, box, due to the shape of the apothecia.

Geographic Distribution and Habitat –
Cladonia pyxidata is a polymorphic and cosmopolitan species. This lichen adapts to a great variety of climates and this is certainly the main reason for its widespread diffusion at all latitudes and longitudes.
Its habitat is that of areas with substrate pH with intermediate values ​​between very acidic and subneutral up to pure subneutral. The need for moisture ranges from hygrophytic to mesophytic.

Recognition –
This lichen has a primary thallus with few scales, which are not close to the substrate.
The podezi have the shape of a chalice, quite large, with internally and externally a cortex of grainy but rather coarse consistency.
Apothecia grow on outgrowths of the edge of the calyx in the form of small capsules (hence the name of the species).

Cultivation –
Cladonia pyxidata crecse on a large number of substrates: with calciferous soil, acid soil (mainly on siliceous substrates), live mosses, plant debris, lignum, bark
The altitudinal range goes from the mesomediterranean belt (potential vegetation: evergreen broad-leaved woods dominated by Quercus ilex) to the nival belt (above the lower limit of perennial snows and glaciers).

Customs and Traditions –
This lichen is easily confused with other congeners such as C. pocillum, C. fimbriata and C. chlorophaea. The photobiont is mainly a green alga of the Trentepohlia.

Preparation Method –
The thallus of this lichen is used for medicinal purposes.

Guido Bissanti

Sources
– Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
– Cetto B., 2008. Real mushrooms, Saturnia, Trento.
– Pignatti S., 1982. Flora of Italy, Edagricole, Bologna.
– Conti F., Abbate G., Alessandrini A., Blasi C. (edited by), 2005. An annotated checklist of the Italian vascular flora, Palombi Editore.

Warning: Pharmaceutical applications and alimurgical uses are indicated for informational purposes only, they do not represent in any way a medical prescription; we therefore decline all responsibility for their use for curative, aesthetic or food purposes.

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