Trigonelline or N-methyl betaine of nicotinic acid is a pyridine alkaloid with a brute or molecular formula: C7H7NO2.
Trigonelline is a zwitterion (electrically neutral molecule as a whole which, however, has both localized positive and negative charges) formed by the methylation of the nitrogen atom of niacin.
In nature, trigonelline is present in high quantities in: Trigonella foenum-graecum, Cannabis spp., Avena sativa, Medicago sativa, Achillea millefolium, Prosopis laevigata and Glycine max.
This alkaloid is responsible, together with the mucilages, for the emollient and expectorant virtues of Trigonella.
Trigonelline is also present in the urine (metabolic product of nicotinic acid), in many vegetable tissues (especially in legumes), in some seafood (Palinurus elephas) and is an important precursor of the aroma of coffee.
Trigonelline acts as a prostaglandin receptor modulator EP2.
Trigonelline is attributed to some appetite-stimulating properties, hypoglycemic, galactogenic, antispasmodic, immune-stimulating, diuretic and aphrodisiac which, however, still require extensive research and scientific confirmation.
Instead, the ability of Trigonelline to improve hyperglycaemia and reduce oxidative stress has been demonstrated.
Warning: The information shown is not medical advice and may not be accurate. The contents are for illustrative purposes only and do not replace medical advice.