Abies pinsapo

Abies pinsapo

The Spanish fir (Abies pinsapo Boiss.) Is an arboreal species belonging to the Pinaceae family.

Systematics –
From a systematic point of view it belongs to the Eukaryota Domain, Kingdom Plantae, Pinophyta Division, Pinopsida Class, Pinales Order, Pinaceae Family and therefore to the Genus Abies and to the A. Pinsapo Species.
It includes the two subspecies: Abies pinsapo pinsapo Boiss., Nominal subspecies diffused in Andalusia and Abies pinsapo marocana (Trab.) Emb. & Maire, widespread in Morocco.

Etymology –
The term Abies derives from Abies -tis, which is the classical Latin name (Virgil, Egloghe), derived from the Sanskrit abh root, to gush out, due to the presence of the resin. The specific epithet pinsapo comes from the vernacular name of pine and fir used in the province of Malaga in Spain.

Geographic Distribution and Habitat –
The Abies Pinsapo is a native species of the mountainous areas of Andalusia in southern Spain. It is a rare fir tree, which is found in the limited mountainous areas of southern Spain and the Moroccan Rif.

Description –
The Spanish fir is a large tree; it has a pyramidal conical shape and bearing; straight trunk with branches inserted from the base and with regular boxes. The bark assumes colors from dark gray to blackish. The leaves are short and very rigid needles with quadrangular section with the base of these oval section; they have a typical brush arrangement around the branch, green in color, with lower gray-green stripes. The cones, which do not have protruding bracts, are located in the highest part of the scaffolding and are cylindrical in color and brownish-gray in maturity. The wood of this species is very similar to that of silver fir.

Cultivation –
Today the cultivation of the Abies Pinsapo, in the areas of origin, is carried out for the protective purposes of this species.
For a cultivation outside its habitat it is necessary to remember that to reach its maximum vigor it takes about 20-50 years. Cultivation can be done in land of various kinds. It can also be exposed in full sun and has a considerable resistance to cold. During the winter dormancy period it survives at temperatures ranging from -15 to -10 ° C.

Uses and Traditions –
The Abies Pinsapo is considered the national tree of Andalusia. In Spain, the nominal subspecies survives today in protected areas of the Sierra de las Nieves and Sierra de Grazalema, respectively in the provinces of Malaga and Cadiz, at an altitude that varies between 900 and 1,800 meters above sea level. Red list of the IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature) as an endangered species. This species is particularly threatened by fires, drought, erosion of ecosystems and, unfortunately, often by a little-conscious tourism.

Preparation Mode –
The Spanish fir is a species that, even for its small area, has no use whatsoever except that of its protection to prevent its extinction.

Guido Bissanti

Sources
– Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
– Treben M., 2000. Health from the Pharmacy of the Lord, Advice and experience with medicinal herbs, Ennsthaler Publisher
– Pignatti S., 1982. Flora of Italy, Edagricole, Bologna.
– Conti F., Abbate G., Alessandrini A., Blasi C. (edited by), 2005. An annotated checklist of the Italian vascular flora, Palombi Editore.

Warning: Pharmaceutical applications and alimurgical uses are indicated for informational purposes only and do not in any way represent a medical prescription; there is therefore no liability for their use for curative, aesthetic or food purposes.

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