How to do the split grafting
The split grafting is one of the most used propagation techniques. It is used both for fruit plants but also for ornamental plants. In this data sheet we will see how to do the split grafting and some useful expedients. First of all, the best time should be identified and this goes from the middle of February to the end of March, possibly while the moon is going down. If it is impossible to comply with this phase, the grafting must be performed in synchronous lunar phase with that of removal of the slips. In the meantime we begin to distinguish the different variants of the split graft; these can be distinguished in: English double split insert, English split insert (or simple split insert); crown split insert. In general it must be said that: the crown joint is recommended when the rootstock is characterized by a large stem; the English double-split grafting takes place to have more possibilities of engraftment but, due to its greater difficulties, it is not always recommended; finally the English splitted graft is recommended for those approaching for the first time the graft manual.
Crown split insert –
This graft is mainly used in the presence of large plants. To carry out this grafting it is necessary to make a deep gap (from 4 to 5 centimeters) on the branch of the rootstock plant; we advise you to choose straight and sturdy branches that you have preliminarily deprived of the leaves. The gears must be cut obliquely, pointed and smooth with the largest surface of live wood available; the wedge shape of the marza must correspond to the gap that you will have made on the rootstock (using a sharp chisel, a grafting knife or a resistant, sterilized screwdriver) and must be complementary so as to have the maximum adherent surface; in short, bark of the marza and of the rootstock must match perfectly. At this point with the second marza we proceed in the same way. After that, the splitting gorges are anchored by tying them tightly to the rootstock with the previously wet raffia proceeding from the bottom upwards so that the water can not penetrate the side wounds. It is also advisable to cover the exposed part of living wood with putty for grafts (avoiding to let it penetrate into the cut). In this grafting, the two slips must be taken from branches that have at least one year with well-swollen and healthy buds. This operation should be carried out possibly by taking the marze from the mother plant a few days before and storing the material in the fridge at about 4 ° C. if this is not possible, the gears can be buried in the sand or taken at the moment if meteorological conditions are present.
Simple or split-split English splitting –
Concept and similar procedure apply for simple English split grafting; in this case it is necessary to have shears and rootstocks of the same diameter for which it is good to take plant material similar to the rootstock. All of this is even more true for the double split clutch. Also here to weld the two parts well it is advisable to use raffia very carefully. Subsequently, in the summer, when you remove the raffia it is good to protect the graft with the putty. We also remember that in the double-split grafting to a third of the cutting section plane (of the marza and of the rootstock) it will be necessary to proceed with making a further, almost longitudinal cut. This second cut has the purpose to form a tongue that allows a perfect between marza and rootstock with greater possibility of engraftment. The skill in practicing grafts is then acquired only with experience and manual skills, especially in the ability to prepare surfaces of the skins and rootstocks perfectly worked and therefore able to adhere well.