Rosmarinus officinalis

Rosmarinus officinalis

The rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, L., 1753) is a shrub belonging to the family Lamiaceae.eae.

Systematic –
From a systematic point of view of the Rosmarinus officinalis it belongs to the Domain Eukaryota, the Kingdom Plantae, Division Magnoliophyta, class Magnoliopsida, Order Lamiales, Lamiaceae family, Rosmarinus to Gender and then the species R. officinalis.

Etymology –
The genus Rosmarinus derives its name from the combination of two Latin words “ros” (dew) and “marinus” (sea). The name was created in order to describe the delicate bluish tint of flowers, comparing it to wrinkling of the waves. The specific name is derived from the many types of medicinal uses that the plant has been known for centuries and centuries throughout the Mediterranean basin.

Geographic Distribution and Habitat –
The Rosmarinus officinalis prefers stains and garrigue, preferably on limestone, from sea level up to 800 meters. It is one of the most common components and characteristic of the Mediterranean low bush.
A native of Europe, Asia and Africa, is now naturally in the Mediterranean coastal areas, garrigue, scrubland, rocky cliffs and sunny inland, from sea level up to the hill, but it has acclimatised well in the area alpine lakes and in the Po Valley in stony and hilly places.

Description –
Rosemary is a shrubby plant that can reach heights of 50 to 300 cm. The roots are deep, fibrous and tough, anchors; has woody stems of light brown color, ascending or erect prostrate, highly branched, young branches hairy gray-green color are quadrangular section.
The leaves, persistent and leathery, are 2-3 cm long and 1-3 mm wide, sessile, opposite, linear-lanceolate thickened numerous on twigs; shiny dark green on the upper surface and whitish on the bottom for the presence of white hair; They have slightly revolute margins; rich in oil glands.
The hermaphrodite flowers are sessile and small, gathered in clusters of overlapping flowering short armpit leaves, forming long spicastri elongated, bracteates and leafy, with bloom from March to October, in the more sheltered positions intermittently throughout the year.
Each flower has a calyx campanulate, tomentose with tridentate upper lip and the lower bifid; the corolla of indigo-purple, blue-purple or, more rarely, white or pale blue, is bilabiate with a slight bulge at the maw; the upper lip is two-lobed, the lower three-lobed, with the largest median lobe of the lateral ones and spoon-shaped with wavy margin; the stamens are only two filaments provided with a small tooth at the base and placed in correspondence of the fauces of the corolla; the ovary is unique, and overcome the quadripartite.
Pollination is entomophilous since it is made by pollinating insects, including honeybees, attracted by the scent and nectar produced by flowers.
The fruits are tetracheni with free achenes, oblong, smooth, brownish.

Cultivation –
For cultivation read the following card.

Customs and Traditions –
Grown in the orchards and gardens from the remotest antiquity, the Greeks and the Romans burned as incense and was sacred to Aphrodite until it was supplanted by the myrtle. It was surrounded by a halo fantastic and believed in possession of magic and aphrodisiac entering in various love potions and propitiatory recipes are famous l ‘ “Heavenly Water” by Caterina Sforza el’ “Water of the Queen of Hungary”, a made from rosemary liquor conceived by Isabel of Hungary. Rosemary appears then in common use with the dual contribution of delicate aroma and the alleged power to ward off bad luck, also symbolizing immortality and marital fidelity.
According to legend, the flowers of rosemary were once whites became blue when Madonna, on the Flight into Egypt, dropped his cloak over a rosemary plant.
According to tradition presides over the hands and their ills. For this reason during the purification rituals you wash your hands with Rosemary penalty of non-healing. In the Middle Ages they were attributed magical properties: with its wooden cast by objects to be used as a talisman, like the comb that would prevent baldness.
Best known is the “water of San Giovanni” to prepare the day before June 24, feast of St. John, which corresponds to the summer solstice. The tradition is to collect various species of herbs (Ginestra, Hypericum, Artemisia, verbena, thyme, sage, basil, marjoram, lavender, rose and rosemary) to be left in the water outdoors all night, 24. The next morning we must wash with this water, which is then thrown away, to cleanse the skin and protection against disease.
From the Mediterranean coasts Rosmarinus officinalis passed in the gardens and jars of the monasteries of the Middle Ages, those “hortuli” in which it cultivated the 16 beneficial plants that made the medieval West therapeutic wealth: 16 plants, in addition to Rosemary included Absinthe, the Watercress, Fennel, Mallow, the greek hay, Giglio, privet, wild Lunaria, the melon, the Mint from round leaves, pennyroyal, Ruta, Sage, tansy and Savory , all Italian plants of the natural flora.
They were identified several therapeutic properties and especially the Arab doctors used it frequently, however, well aware that in high doses can cause spasms and dizziness. The impressive number of medical applications based on Rosmarinus officinalis (stimulant in diseases of the nerves and nell’amenorrea, healing of tumors, chronic diarrhea, gangrene, prolapse of the rectum and vagina), certainly valuable in times no modern and effective therapies, it is now unfortunately downsized in favor of synthetic ingredients.
Currently, they recognize flavoring properties, aperitif, digestive, antispasmodic, diuretic, balsamic, antiseptic, rubefacient, stimulant.
The benefits of the herbal tea with rosemary in the treatment of diabetes affecting its action, according to the researchers report the University of Illinois (USA), limiting with regard to concentrations of glucose in the blood.
The strong presence of antioxidants is then associated with a good opposition activity against some cancers. To this it is also associated with less skin aging and as for the hair a reduced tendency to become white or falling. The consumption of herbal tea with rosemary also promotes the disposal by the liver of toxins.
In addition to the benefits offered by real consumption it is also possible to exploit the volatiles that are dispersed throughout the infusion period. An example is the balsamic properties and the airways offers care from rosemary, in particular in cases of cold, cough or nasal congestion.
At Rosemary has also been associated by some recent studies, conducted respectively by researchers at Northumbria University in Newcastle (UK) and the Saint Louis University School of Medicine (USA), the ability to stimulate memory, identifying this aromatic plant as a natural remedy quote against neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s.
From Rosemary obtained an essential oil and extracts useful in perfumery and cosmetics, liqueurs and pharmacies. For internal use Rosemary has digestive properties, antispasmodic and carminative; It stimulates diuresis and perspiration, regulates the menstrual cycle, fluidizes the bronchial secretion, soothes coughs convulsive. For external use it is mostly a good antiseptic.
The essential oil has yet locally stimulating and rubefacient useful for the treatment of bruises, muscle and joint pain, rheumatism and stiff neck.
In cosmetics, lotions, and the bathrooms deodorize and cleanse the skin, dyes revitalize your scalp, toothpastes and mouthwashes Rosemary strengthens the gums.
The twigs and leaves collected from May to July and dried in the shade have aromatic, stimulating appetite and digestive functions, stomachici, carminative, useful in atonic dyspepsia and gastralgia, tonic and stimulant to the nervous system, liver and gallbladder. For some authors it is also recommended for general ailments such as cough or asthma.
It continues Instead undisputed success of rosemary in the kitchen, where together with Sage, Thyme and Alloro provides continuously for centuries the typical aroma not only in meat, fish and game, but also a simple and popular desserts such as chestnut.
The rosemary flowers, finally, are very important nelle’equilibrio entomofauna a farm, especially among the pollinators as they attract large numbers bees that produce honey from the properties and excellent flavor.
In addition to medicinal uses illustrated below rosemary it is used:
As an ornamental plant in gardens, borders, flower beds and shrubs spots, or for growing in pots on balconies.
In the cosmetics industry as a shampoo to brighten the color of hair or as an astringent lotions; in ointments and liniments for tonic properties. In perfumery, essential oil extracted from the leaves is used for the preparation of colonies, such as Hungary Water.
As insect repellent or deodorant in the home (if you burn dry twigs)
For the production of a single-flower honey because the flowers are particularly melliferi
In the alimentary field, in the form of extract, it is used as an additive with antioxidant properties and labeled with the abbreviation E392. If you know 5 types designated with acronyms:
– AR: extract obtained from an alcoholic extract of rosemary flavored partially;
– ARD: extract obtained from an alcoholic extract of rosemary flavored;
– D74: extract obtained from dried rosemary leaves by extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide;
– F62: extract obtained from dried rosemary leaves by extraction with acetone;
– RES: extract obtained by extraction with hexane and acetone and then decolorized and dearomatized.
For external use the macerate into wine is applied topically antirheumatic; while the macerated in alcohol, revulsive, is used to clutches also the scalp; It possesses qualities analgesic, and then is applied to rheumatic pains, arthritis.
For external use if they use the infusion for gargling, lavages and irrigations healing; or for poultices reliever and antirheumatic; added to the water bath used as a tonic, purifying and toning the skin.
In pharmacology prepares essence and water against alopecia or ointments for eczema.
Always in pharmacology oil it is used as eupeptico, exciting, antiseptic, sedative, and their preparations against depression, restoring physical and intellectual vigor to the weakened people.
From the leaves, in a vapor stream, it extracts the essential oil of rosemary, for a 1% by weight, colorless or yellowish liquid containing pinene, camphene, cineole, eucalyptol, camphor and borneol. Depending on the chemotype of the plant are obtained different essential oils:
• A chemotype produces a rich eucalyptol oil, which stimulates the secretion of gastric glands of the digestive and respiratory systems, responsible for the effects on the digestion and mucolytic activity.
• A chemotype produces an oil rich in camphor, a ketone which can instead be used as anti-rheumatic for local use, but responsible for toxic effects on the CNS, when used orally.
• A chemotype, however, produces oil rich in borneoloe derivatives, as foreseen by the Pharmacopoeia, better shown in spastic diseases of the biliary tract.
• And finally, one in which abound the borneol and its derivatives.
Even for Rosemary contraindications exist, especially for those denotes unusual or allergic reaction to one or more components. In Pregnancy or lactation (phytotherapeutic) since in animals reduces the implantation of the zygote. pre-operative period. The essential oil of camphor is contraindicated in people suffering from epilepsy. Cause in fact, especially in cases of overdose, irritation, convulsions, vomiting and principles of respiratory paralysis.

Preparation Mode –
In cooking, rosemary is added in the preparation of meat dishes, fish, game. It ‘a great flavor to risottos, for vegetable soups, for certain types of bread and buns. It is also used for aromatic oils and vinegars. In medicine the essential oil (made with fresh flowering tops) is used for rheumatic and arthritic pains. The shampoo strengthens the color of dark hair. In the home it is used to manufacture bearings anti-moth-smelling laundry. Or fresh branches are hanging air freshener.
The rosemary exerts its effective curative action in the form of different preparations, both for oral administration in external applications. Let’s look at some tips on using.
For internal use an infusion can be prepared in the following manner:
Rosemary, dried leaves: 1-2 teaspoons, or 2 percent;
Boiling water: 1 cup;
Leave in infusion, in a covered container, for 10-15 minutes, then filtered. Take 3 times a day after meals.
For the mother tincture
Rosmarinus officinalis: 30 drops, diluted in a little water;
Take 3 times a day.
Dyeing
Rosemary 1-2 ml of tincture per day.
Dyeing hydroalcoholic
Rosemary: 5-10 grams per day
fluid extract
Rosemary: 4-6 grams per day, or 10-30 drops per dose.
(1 gram = 37 drops).
Dry extract
Rosemary: 1-1.5 grams per day.
For external use only
In the bathroom. For invigorating and stimulating blood circulation added to bath an infusion of rosemary. These baths are also useful in the case of rheumatism and during convalescence.
They are also used in parasitic diseases, such as scabies.
They are fortifying bathrooms also suitable for children.
Rosemary: 5 percent, or 50 grams
Water: 1 liter
Leave in infusion for 20 minutes, then filtered.
The ideal time to tone with a bath or a shower with the scent of rosemary is upon awakening, before you start your day. Or, when you feel fatigued after exercise. In the evening the bathroom Rosemary can be used to eliminate the fatigue of the day and “recharge” before a night out.
Recipe for bathrooms legs. To eliminate the feeling of heaviness in the legs, which often feels the bathrooms with the decoction are given at the end of the day.
Rosemary: 60-70 grams
Sale: 20 grams
Water: 3 liters
Boil 10 minutes, then filtered. Use a lukewarm bath leg lengthening the decoction with water to cover them. Finish with a cold shower in the legs.
In compresses. For rheumatism, arthritis, joint and muscle pains can be used gauze pads soaked in infusion or decoction of rosemary. They favor stimulating topical action of circulation and pain relief.
Rosemary leaves 1 handful or 50-60 grams
Water: 1 liter
Boil for 10-15 minutes, turn off and filter.
Apply to affected areas.
In case of distortions wraps you may be carried out by immersing a gauze hot nell’infuso and using it on the painful area, for 2-3 minutes. Alternate the hot compress with ice applications, again for 2-3 minutes.
Massage. For a pleasant stimulating and revitalizing sensation you can do massages with rosemary-based preparations.
Rosemary, mother tincture: 100 drops
Almond oil (or other massage oil): 250 ml
Other external applications. The decoction of rosemary is effective also used on the wounds, as a soothing lotion.
Rosemary leaves 1 handful
Water: 1 liter
Boil for 10 minutes. Turn off and filter.
Use to rinse.
Using seminterno
Irrigations. In case of leucorrhea, ie increased vaginal secretions, are deemed useful irrigations with the decoction of the plant.
Rosemary leaves 1 handful
Water: 1 liter
Boil for 10 minutes, then filtered.
Perform the vaginal irrigations when the liquid is warm.
Gargle / Rinse. The infusion of rosemary is indicated for gargling with antiseptic action of the throat. It ‘also indicated for oral hygiene and for a refreshing effect on the gums.
In the kitchen and rosemary, with its Mediterranean flavor, it is among the most used herbs from the kitchen since ancient times. Fresh or dried, preserved foods and releases on its intense aroma and its sweet-sour taste.
This plant is suitable to flavor many dishes. Its use in the kitchen is also recommended because it favors the digestion of fats, by virtue of the very digestive and the specific action in the liver.
Rosemary also improves food storage because it acts as a real natural antioxidant; this feature is due to the presence of substances such as diterpenes and rosmarinic acid.
The plant is very well preserved in the dry state. The dried leaves, shredded before use, return their aroma.
To use time, fresh rosemary leaves are chopped, while dry ones crumble.
It is important not to exceed the dosage, because his penetrating flavor tends to be higher than that of other foods.
In the preparation of cereal chopped rosemary, fresh or dried, scented rice or other dishes of cereals. An entire branch in the oven transfers its aroma to bread and buns during cooking; or you can add chopped in small quantities directly to the dough of the bread.
For vegetables. Flavor to soups and vegetable broths. It combines, finely chopped, in raw and cooked vegetables. The flowers of rosemary, sky-blue color, in small amounts, have a fresh, pleasant in salads.
For cheeses. It amalgamates the white cheeses, to flavor.
For meat. It can be added to various meat dishes, fish and sausage; It spreads roasts.
For condiments and sauces. A sprig in a bottle of oil and vinegar creates a great aromatic seasoning. Rosemary is also very suitable to flavor sauces and gravies; its flavor blends well with the intense garlic; including herbs, the more similar are thyme, savory and sage.
For fruits. Some of rosemary leaves add a special flavor also compotes and fruit salads.
Thanks to its purifying, stimulating, deodorant, rosemary found considerable applications in the cosmetic industry, also to industrial level.
The aromatic extracts obtained from the plant are used in the preparation of creams, shampoos, perfumes and other products for the cosmetic and personal hygiene.
The rosemary prepared, can be used for a specific anti-dandruff action, they can be added to water for rinsing hair. With the plant are preparing revitalizing lotions for hair. For the treatment of oily hair are used usually prepared to 2-3 percent.
Rosemary can also be used to enhance the effectiveness of the usual shampoo for hair.
Rosemary, well-washed leaves 1 small handful
Neutral Shampoo: 1 bottle
Add the rosemary to shampoo. Close and leave a few weeks. Filter the preparation before use.
Rosemary is also found in the composition of lotions and other products for the care and beauty of the skin, in particular for the treatment of impure skin.
We see a recipe for purifying lotion. With rosemary you can prepare a lotion for the face and neckline.
Rosemary with leaves and flowers: 50 grams
Boiling water: 1 liter.
Infuse for 10 minutes, then filtered. Use as a tonic to complete the evening cleaning.
Finally rosemary is very suitable for:
• perfume the home environments, thanks to its refreshing properties and bactericide.
• refreshing and deodorizing closed environments, with rosemary branches can be made decorative bunches, or garlands to hang on the doors or on the walls of the house.
The leaflets may be combined with mixtures of potpourri.
A gentle deodorant and purifying action is also obtained by burning in a suitable container some dried leaves, as is done with the incense, or by adding some branches of rosemary, deprived of leaves, the wood-burning fireplace.
To perfume small rooms for kitchen towels stored in drawers or closets, they show the filled bags of twigs and leaves of rosemary.
For home, with rosemary you leave you can prepare a liquid disinfectant, especially suitable for the bathroom.
Rosemary leaves 1 handful
Boiling water: ½ liter.
Boil 10 minutes, filter and use to necessity.

Guido Bissanti

posted on 04/19/2017

Sources
– Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
– Treben M., 2000. The Health from the Pharmacy of the Lord, tips and experiences with medicinal herbs, Ennsthaler Publisher
– Pignatti S., 1982. Flora of Italy, Edagricole, Bologna.
– Conti F., Abbate G., Alessandrini A., Blasi C. (ed), 2005. An annotated checklist of the Italian vascular flora, Palombi Editore.
Please note: Pharmaceutical applications and alimurgici uses are indicated for information purposes only, do not represent in any way a medical prescription; it accepts no liability on their use for therapeutic purposes, cosmetic or food.




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